Studia Logica

, Volume 100, Issue 4, pp 705-725

First online:

Inclusion and Exclusion in Natural Language

  • Thomas F. IcardIIIAffiliated withDepartment of Philosophy, Stanford University Email author 

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We present a formal system for reasoning about inclusion and exclusion in natural language, following work by MacCartney and Manning. In particular, we show that an extension of the Monotonicity Calculus, augmented by six new type markings, is sufficient to derive novel inferences beyond monotonicity reasoning, and moreover gives rise to an interesting logic of its own. We prove soundness of the resulting calculus and discuss further logical and linguistic issues, including a new connection to the classes of weak, strong, and superstrong negative polarity items.


Surface reasoning Logic and grammar Exclusion relations Polarity