Effects of Applicant Pregnancy on Hiring Decisions and Interview Ratings
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
The effects of pregnancy on hiring decisions during employment interviews are examined in a United States sample of 210 undergraduate business school students at a Midwestern university. A pregnant applicant was compared to a non-pregnant applicant with identical credentials and interview performance to explore any differences in interviewer ratings of qualifications and hiring by having participants view videotaped interviews. Results show that in spite of being viewed as equally qualified and well-suited for the job, the pregnant applicant received significantly lower hiring recommendation ratings. The pregnant applicant was also rated as more likely to need time off, miss work and quit compared to the non-pregnant applicant, indicating a concern about absenteeism regarding the pregnant applicant.
- Armour, S. (February, 2005). Pregnant workers report growing discrimination. USA Today. Retrieved April 10, 2006, from http://www.usatoday.com/money/workplace/2005-02-16-pregnancy-bias-usat_x.htm.
- Cleveland, J. N., Stockdale, M., Murphy, K. R. (2000) Women and Men in Organizations: Sex and Gender Issues at Work. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., New Jersey
- Corse, S. J. (1990) Pregnant managers and their subordinates: The effects of gender expectations on hierarchical relationships. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 26: pp. 24-47
- DeNicolis Bragger, J., Kutcher, E., Morgan, J., Firth, P. (2002) The effects of the structured interview on reducing biases against pregnant job applicants. Sex Roles 46: pp. 215-226 CrossRef
- Dipboye, R. L. (1992) Selection Interviews: Process Perspectives. South-Western Publishing Co, Cincinnati
- Eagly, A. H., Karau, S. J. (2002) Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders. Psychological Review 109: pp. 573-598 CrossRef
- Faul, F., & Erdfedler, E. (1992). GPOWER: A priori, post-hoc, and compromise power analyses for MS-DOS (computer programme). Bonn, FRG: Bonn University, Dep. of Psychology. (http:// www. Psychologie.uni-trier.de:8000/projects/gpower.html).
- Franco, K., Evans, C. L., Best, A. P., Zrull, J. P., Pizza, G. A. (1983) Conflicts associated with physicians’ pregnancies. American Journal of Psychiatry 140: pp. 902-904
- Gueutal, H. G., Taylor, E. M. (1991) Employee pregnancy: The impact on organizations, pregnant employees and co-workers. Journal of Business and Psychology 5: pp. 459-476 CrossRef
- Halpert, J. A., Hickman Burg, J. (1997) Mixed messages: Co-worker responses to the pregnant employee. Journal of Business and Psychology 12: pp. 241-253 CrossRef
- Halpert, J. A., Wilson, M. L., Hickman, J. L. (1993) Pregnancy as a source of bias in performance appraisals. Journal of Organizational Behavior 14: pp. 649-663 CrossRef
- Hammond, K. R. (1996) Human Judgment and Social Policy: Irreducible Uncertainty, Inevitable Error, Unavoidable Injustice. Oxford University Press, New York
- Hebl, M. R., Kleck, R. E. (2002) Acknowledging one’s stigma in the interview setting: Effective strategy or liability?. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 32: pp. 223-249 CrossRef
- Hebl, M. R., Skorinko, J. L. (2005) Acknowledging one’s physical disability in the interview: Does “when” make a difference?. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 35: pp. 1-17 CrossRef
- Heilman, M. E. (1983) Sex bias in work settings: The lack of fit model. Research in Organizational Behavior 5: pp. 269-298
- Hitt, E. R., Barr, S. H. (1989) Managerical selection decision models: Examination of configural cue processing. Journal of Applied Psychology 74: pp. 53-61 CrossRef
- Huvelle, N. F., Budoff, M., Arnholz, D. (1984) To tell or not to tell: Disability disclosure and the job interview. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness 78: pp. 241-244
- Kacmar, K. M., Wayne, S. J., Ratcliff, S. H. (1994) An examination of automatic versus controlled information processing in the employment interview: The case of minority applicants. Sex Roles 30: pp. 809-828 CrossRef
- Kazama, S. M., & Hebl, M. R. (2003, April). Assessing pregnancy in hiring situations: The role of formal and interpersonal discrimination. Paper presented at 18th annual SIOP conference, Orlando, Fl.
- Klerman, J. A., Leibowitz, A. (1999) Job continuity among new mothers. Demography 36: pp. 145-155 CrossRef
- Macan, T. H., Detjen, J. B., Dickey, K. L. (1994) Measures of job perceptions: Gender and age of current incumbents, suitability, and job attributes. Sex Roles 30: pp. 55-67 CrossRef
- Macan, T. H., Dipboye, R. L. (1990) The relationship of interviewers’ preinterview impressions to selection and recruitment outcomes. Personnel Psychology 43: pp. 745-768 CrossRef
- O’Connel, M. (December, 2001). New census bureau analysis indicates women making longer-term commitments to workplace. U.S. Census Bureau News. Retrieved April 3, 2006, from http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/fertility/000319.html.
- Pregnancy discrimination. The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Retrieved April 10, 2006, from http://www.eeoc.gov/types/pregnancy.html.
- Schmitt, N. (1976) Social and situational determinants of interview decisions: Implications for the employment interview. Personnel Psychology 29: pp. 79-101 CrossRef
- Slonaker, W. M., & Wendt, A. C. (1991). Pregnancy discrimination: An empirical analysis of a continuing problem. Labor Law Journal, 343–350 (June).
- The Pregnancy Discrimination Act 25 years later: Pregnancy discrimination persists. National Partnership for Women & Families. Retrieved April 10, 2006, from http://www.nationalpartnership.org/portals/p3/library/workplaceDiscrimination/Pregnancy25thAnnivFacts.pdf.
- Tversky, A., Kahneman, D. (1974) Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Science 85: pp. 1124-1131 CrossRef
- Valian, V. (1998) Why so slow: The advancement of women. M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, MA
- Women at work: Look behind the numbers 40 years after the Civil Rights Act of 1964. (July, 2004). National Partnership for Women & Families, 1–20.
- Effects of Applicant Pregnancy on Hiring Decisions and Interview Ratings
Volume 57, Issue 7-8 , pp 497-508
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer US
- Additional Links
- Employment interviews
- Hiring issues
- Industry Sectors