Sex Roles

, Volume 52, Issue 3, pp 201-215

First online:

Cross-Cultural Reactions to Academic Sexual Harassment: Effects of Individualist vs. Collectivist Culture and Gender of Participants

  • Janet SigalAffiliated withFairleigh Dickinson UniversityPsychology Department, Fairleigh Dickinson University Email author 
  • , Margaret S. GibbsAffiliated withFairleigh Dickinson University
  • , Carl GoodrichAffiliated withFairleigh Dickinson University
  • , Tayyab RashidAffiliated withFairleigh Dickinson University
  • , Afroze AnjumAffiliated withFairleigh Dickinson University
  • , Daniel HsuAffiliated withFairleigh Dickinson University
  • , Carrol S. PerrinoAffiliated withMorgan State University
  • , Hale Bolak BoratavAffiliated withIstanbul Bilgi University
  • , Aggie Carson-ArenasAffiliated withAngeles University Foundation
    • , Berna van BaarsenAffiliated withVU University Medical Centre
    • , Joop van der PligtAffiliated withUniversity of Amsterdam
    • , Wei-Kang PanAffiliated withModern Women’s Foundation

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Male and female university students from the United States, Canada, Germany, the Netherlands, Ecuador, Pakistan, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Turkey read a standardized scenario in which a male professor was accused of sexually harassing a female graduate student. Respondents from individualist countries judged the professor to be guilty of sexual harassment more often than did those from collectivist countries. Women rendered significantly more guilty judgments and assigned more severe punishments to the accused professor than did men. Implications for the individualist–collectivist classification system and cross-cultural research are discussed.


sexual harassment culture gender