Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries

, Volume 20, Issue 4, pp 471–487

The biology and ecology of the ocean sunfish Mola mola: a review of current knowledge and future research perspectives


  • Edward C. Pope
    • Centre for Sustainable Aquaculture ResearchSwansea University
  • Graeme C. Hays
    • Institute of Environmental SustainabilitySwansea University
  • Tierney M. Thys
    • Ocean Sunfish Research and Tagging Program
  • Thomas K. Doyle
    • Coastal and Marine Resources Centre, Lewis Glucksman Marine FacilityUniversity College Cork
  • David W. Sims
    • Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, The Laboratory
    • School of Biological SciencesUniversity of Plymouth
  • Nuno Queiroz
    • Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, The Laboratory
    • CIBIO-UP, Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, Campus Agrário de Vairão
  • Victoria J. Hobson
    • Institute of Environmental SustainabilitySwansea University
  • Lukas Kubicek
    • Whale Observation Project, W.O.P. Centre
    • School of Biological SciencesQueen’s University Belfast, Medical Biology Centre
    • Queen’s University Belfast Marine Laboratory

DOI: 10.1007/s11160-009-9155-9

Cite this article as:
Pope, E.C., Hays, G.C., Thys, T.M. et al. Rev Fish Biol Fisheries (2010) 20: 471. doi:10.1007/s11160-009-9155-9


Relatively little is known about the biology and ecology of the world’s largest (heaviest) bony fish, the ocean sunfish Mola mola, despite its worldwide occurrence in temperate and tropical seas. Studies are now emerging that require many common perceptions about sunfish behaviour and ecology to be re-examined. Indeed, the long-held view that ocean sunfish are an inactive, passively drifting species seems to be entirely misplaced. Technological advances in marine telemetry are revealing distinct behavioural patterns and protracted seasonal movements. Extensive forays by ocean sunfish into the deep ocean have been documented and broad-scale surveys, together with molecular and laboratory based techniques, are addressing the connectivity and trophic role of these animals. These emerging molecular and movement studies suggest that local distinct populations may be prone to depletion through bycatch in commercial fisheries. Rising interest in ocean sunfish, highlighted by the increase in recent publications, warrants a thorough review of the biology and ecology of this species. Here we review the taxonomy, morphology, geography, diet, locomotion, vision, movements, foraging ecology, reproduction and species interactions of M. mola. We present a summary of current conservation issues and suggest methods for addressing fundamental gaps in our knowledge.


TeleostTelemetryForaging ecologyLocomotionDietRangePhylogeny

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010