Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries

, Volume 20, Issue 4, pp 471–487

The biology and ecology of the ocean sunfish Mola mola: a review of current knowledge and future research perspectives

  • Edward C. Pope
  • Graeme C. Hays
  • Tierney M. Thys
  • Thomas K. Doyle
  • David W. Sims
  • Nuno Queiroz
  • Victoria J. Hobson
  • Lukas Kubicek
  • Jonathan D. R. Houghton
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11160-009-9155-9

Cite this article as:
Pope, E.C., Hays, G.C., Thys, T.M. et al. Rev Fish Biol Fisheries (2010) 20: 471. doi:10.1007/s11160-009-9155-9

Abstract

Relatively little is known about the biology and ecology of the world’s largest (heaviest) bony fish, the ocean sunfish Mola mola, despite its worldwide occurrence in temperate and tropical seas. Studies are now emerging that require many common perceptions about sunfish behaviour and ecology to be re-examined. Indeed, the long-held view that ocean sunfish are an inactive, passively drifting species seems to be entirely misplaced. Technological advances in marine telemetry are revealing distinct behavioural patterns and protracted seasonal movements. Extensive forays by ocean sunfish into the deep ocean have been documented and broad-scale surveys, together with molecular and laboratory based techniques, are addressing the connectivity and trophic role of these animals. These emerging molecular and movement studies suggest that local distinct populations may be prone to depletion through bycatch in commercial fisheries. Rising interest in ocean sunfish, highlighted by the increase in recent publications, warrants a thorough review of the biology and ecology of this species. Here we review the taxonomy, morphology, geography, diet, locomotion, vision, movements, foraging ecology, reproduction and species interactions of M. mola. We present a summary of current conservation issues and suggest methods for addressing fundamental gaps in our knowledge.

Keywords

TeleostTelemetryForaging ecologyLocomotionDietRangePhylogeny

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edward C. Pope
    • 1
  • Graeme C. Hays
    • 2
  • Tierney M. Thys
    • 3
  • Thomas K. Doyle
    • 4
  • David W. Sims
    • 5
    • 6
  • Nuno Queiroz
    • 5
    • 7
  • Victoria J. Hobson
    • 2
  • Lukas Kubicek
    • 8
  • Jonathan D. R. Houghton
    • 9
    • 10
  1. 1.Centre for Sustainable Aquaculture ResearchSwansea UniversitySwanseaUK
  2. 2.Institute of Environmental SustainabilitySwansea UniversitySwanseaUK
  3. 3.Ocean Sunfish Research and Tagging ProgramCarmelUSA
  4. 4.Coastal and Marine Resources Centre, Lewis Glucksman Marine FacilityUniversity College CorkHaulbowline, CorkIreland
  5. 5.Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, The LaboratoryCitadel Hill, PlymouthUK
  6. 6.School of Biological SciencesUniversity of PlymouthDrake Circus, PlymouthUK
  7. 7.CIBIO-UP, Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, Campus Agrário de VairãoVairãoPortugal
  8. 8.Whale Observation Project, W.O.P. CentreZäziwilSwitzerland
  9. 9.School of Biological SciencesQueen’s University Belfast, Medical Biology CentreBelfastUK
  10. 10.Queen’s University Belfast Marine LaboratoryPortaferry, NewtownardsUK