, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 313-332

Impacts of shrimp farming on the coastal environment of Bangladesh and approach for management

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Abstract

The frozen food export sector, next to readymade garments sector, is the second largest export earner of Bangladesh. Shrimp, main item of frozen food, is a major contributor in the national economy of Bangladesh since mid 1980s. Although it provides millions of employment and earns more than US$ 445 million annually, it has been facing a host of challenges. Shrimp farming has been associated with a number of negative environmental and social impacts which hinder the sustainable development of this blooming sector. This paper aim to focus on how the shrimp culture in Bangladesh is affecting the adjacent environment as well as society and management approach for it’s sustain ability by means of reviewing the available scientific literatures. It finds the grave socioeconomic impacts including traditional livelihood displacement, loss of land security, food insecurity, marginalization, rural unemployment, social unrest and conflicts in the wake of shrimp culture development in Bangladesh. Similarly, environmental impacts such as mangrove degradation, loss of biodiversity, sedimentation, saltwater intrusion, and pollution and disease outbreaks are found to be the main obstacles for the development of sustainable shrimp farming. Inappropriate management practices and inadequate plans regarding water quality, seed supply, irrigation facilities and fishery resources are the main reasons for these impacts of shrimp farming. The effective management measures to mitigate the adverse environmental impact of shrimp farming development have now become urgent requirement.