The impact of menopause on health-related quality of life: results from the STRIDE longitudinal study
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
We examine the impact of menopausal status, beyond menopausal symptoms, on health-related quality of life (HRQoL).
Seven hundred thirty-two women aged 40–65, regardless of health condition or menopausal status, were enrolled from single general internal medicine practice. Women completed annual questionnaires including HRQoL, and menopausal status and symptoms.
The physical health composite of the RAND-36 is lower in late peri (45.6, P < .05), early post (45.4, P < .05), and late postmenopausal women (44.6, P < .01), and those who report a hysterectomy (44.2, P < .01) compared to premenopausal women (47.1), with effect sizes of Cohen’s d = .12-.23. The mental health composite of the RAND-36 is lower in late peri (44.7, P < .01), early post (44.9, P < .01), and late postmenopausal women (45.0, P < .05) and those who report a hysterectomy (44.2, P < .01) compared to premenopausal women (46.8), with effect sizes of Cohen’s d = .15–.20. Findings are comparable adjusted for menopausal symptom frequency and bother.
Over a 5-year follow-up period, we found a negative impact of menopause on some domains of HRQoL, regardless of menopausal symptoms. Clinicians should be aware of this relationship and work to improve HRQoL, rather than expect it to improve spontaneously when menopausal symptoms resolve.
- Santoro, N., Brown, J. R., Adel, T., & Skurnick, J. H. (1996). Characterization of reproductive hormonal dynamics in the perimenopause. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 81(4), 1495–1501. CrossRef
- Dillaway, H. E. (2008). “Why can’t you control this?” How women’s interactions with intimate partners define menopause and family. Journal of Women Aging, 20(1–2), 47–64. CrossRef
- Olshansky, E. (2005). Feeling normal. Women’s experiences of menopause after infertility. MCN; American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 30(3), 195–200. CrossRef
- Dennerstein, L., Lehert, P., & Guthrie, J. (2002). The effects of the menopausal transition and biopsychosocial factors on well-being. Archives of Women Mental Health, 5(1), 15–22. CrossRef
- Mishra, G. D., Brown, W. J., & Dobson, A. J. (2003). Physical and mental health: changes during menopause transition. Quality of Life Research, 12(4), 405–412. CrossRef
- Avis, N. E., Assmann, S. F., Kravitz, H. M., Ganz, P. A., & Ory, M. (2004). Quality of life in diverse groups of midlife women: assessing the influence of menopause, health status and psychosocial and demographic factors. Quality of Life Research, 13(5), 933–946. CrossRef
- Kumari, M., Stafford, M., & Marmot, M. (2005). The menopausal transition was associated in a prospective study with decreased health functioning in women who report menopausal symptoms. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 58(7), 719–727. CrossRef
- Cheng, M. H., Lee, S. J., Wang, S. J., Wang, P. H., & Fuh, J. L. (2007). Does menopausal transition affect the quality of life? A longitudinal study of middle-aged women in Kinmen. Menopause, 14(5), 885–890. CrossRef
- Thurston, R. C., Bromberger, J. T., Joffe, H., Avis, N. E., Hess, R., Crandall, C. J., et al. (2008). Beyond frequency: Who is most bothered by vasomotor symptoms? Menopause, 15(5), 841–847. CrossRef
- Avis, N. E., Colvin, A., Bromberger, J. T., Hess, R., Matthews, K. A., Ory, M., et al. (2009). Change in health-related quality of life over the menopausal transition in a multiethnic cohort of middle-aged women: Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. Menopause, 16(5), 860–869. CrossRef
- Blumel, J. E., Castelo-Branco, C., Binfa, L., Gramegna, G., Tacla, X., Aracena, B., et al. (2000). Quality of life after the menopause: A population study. Maturitas, 34(1), 17–23. CrossRef
- Genazzani, A., Nicolucci, A., Campagnoli, C., Crosignani, P., Nappi, C., Serra, G., et al. (2002). Assessment of the QoL in Italian menopausal women: Comparison between HRT users and non-users. Maturitas, 42(4), 267–280. CrossRef
- Limouzin-Lamothe, M. A., Mairon, N., Joyce, C. R., & Le Gal, M. (1994). Quality of life after the menopause: influence of hormonal replacement therapy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 170(2), 618–624.
- Smith-DiJulio, K., Woods, N. F., & Mitchell, E. S. (2008). Well-being during the menopausal transition and early postmenopause: A longitudinal analysis. Menopause, 15(6), 1095–1102. CrossRef
- Hess, R., Santucci, A., McTigue, K., Fischer, G., & Kapoor, W. (2008). Patient difficulty using tablet computers to screen in primary care. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 23(4), 476–480. CrossRef
- Hess, R., Olshansky, E., Ness, R., Bryce, C. L., Dillon, S., Kapoor, W., et al. (2008). Pregnancy and birth history influence women’s experience of menopause. Menopause, 15(5), 435–441. CrossRef
- Hess, R., Conroy, M. B., Ness, R., Bryce, C. L., Dillon, S., Chang, C. C., et al. (2009). Association of lifestyle and relationship factors with sexual functioning of women during midlife. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 6(5), 1358–1368. CrossRef
- Hays, R. D. (1998). RAND 36: Health status inventory (1st ed.). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
- Sommer, B., Avis, N., Meyer, P., Ory, M., Madden, T., Kagawa-Singer, M., et al. (1999). Attitudes toward menopause and aging across ethnic/racial groups. Psychosomatic Medicine, 61(6), 868–875.
- Samsa, G., Edelman, D., Rothman, M., Williams, G. R., Lipscomb, J., & Matchar, D. (1999). Determining clinically important differences in health status measures: A general approach with illustration to the Health Utilities Index Mark II. Pharmacoeconomics, 15(2), 141–155. CrossRef
- Hays, R., & Woolley, J. (2000). The concept of clinically meaningful difference in health-related quality-of-life research. How meaningful is it? Pharmacoeconomics, 18(5), 419–423. CrossRef
- King, M. T. (2011). A point of minimal important difference (MID): A critique of terminology and methods. Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research, 11(2), 171–184. CrossRef
- Ware, J., Kosinski, M., & Keller, S. (1994). SF-36 physical and mental health summary scales: A user’s manual. Boston, MA: The Health Institute.
- Kosinski, M., Zhao, S. Z., Dedhiya, S., Osterhaus, J. T., & Ware, J. E., Jr. (2000). Determining minimally important changes in generic and disease-specific health-related quality of life questionnaires in clinical trials of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 43(7), 1478–1487. CrossRef
- Lansky, D., Butler, J. B., & Waller, F. T. (1992). Using health status measures in the hospital setting: From acute care to ‘outcomes management’. Medical Care, 30(5 Suppl), MS57–MS73. CrossRef
- Nortvedt, M. W., Riise, T., Myhr, K. M., & Nyland, H. I. (2000). Performance of the SF-36, SF-12, and RAND-36 summary scales in a multiple sclerosis population. Medical Care, 38(10), 1022–1028. CrossRef
- Sowers, M., Crawford, S. L., Sternfeld, B., Morganstein, D., Gold, E. B., Greendale, G. A., et al. (2000). SWAN: A multicenter, multiethnic, community-based cohort study of women and the menopausal transition. In R. A. Lobo, J. Kelsey, & R. Marcus (Eds.), Menopause: Biology and pathobiology. San Diego: Academic Press.
- Hays, R. D., Kim, S., Spritzer, K. L., Kaplan, R. M., Tally, S., Feeny, D., et al. (2009). Effects of mode and order of administration on generic health-related quality of life scores. Value Health, 12(6), 1035–1039. CrossRef
- The impact of menopause on health-related quality of life: results from the STRIDE longitudinal study
Quality of Life Research
Volume 21, Issue 3 , pp 535-544
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer Netherlands
- Additional Links
- Health-related quality of life
- Hot flashes
- Vaginal dryness
- Women’s health
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 230 McKee Place, Suite 600, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213, USA
- 2. Center for Research on Health Care, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
- 3. Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
- 4. Department of Medicine, The David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
- 5. University of Texas School of Public Health, Houston, TX, USA
- 6. Department of Health Policy and Management, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA