Quality & Quantity

, Volume 47, Issue 3, pp 1793–1801

Gender differences in macroeconomic expectations: evidence from Turkey


    • Department of International Logistics ManagementIstanbul Kemerburgaz University
  • Dilek Teker
    • Department of Banking and FinanceOkan University

DOI: 10.1007/s11135-011-9626-7

Cite this article as:
Cifter, A. & Teker, D. Qual Quant (2013) 47: 1793. doi:10.1007/s11135-011-9626-7


The aim of this study is to examine how men and women’s expectations differ about macroeconomic outlook. We examine whether there exist similarities or differences in men and women’s macroeconomic expectations. For this paper, 365 of Turkey’s leading business economists, strategists, portfolio managers and industry managers participated in a survey titled “Economic Expectations in Turkey for 2010.” The survey investigates gender differences in regards to four macroeconomic expectations; namely, inflation, unemployment, growth and exports. The survey participants are first classified according to their gender, and then their economic perceptions are analyzed. Initially, Kolmogorov–Smirnov statistics are implemented to test normality of data. Then, the Chi-square test of independence is used to compare macroeconomic expectations of men and women. The empirical findings show that macroeconomic expectations of males and females are not statistically different for inflation, unemployment, and exports. On the other hand, macroeconomic expectations of males and females are statistically different only for economic growth at a 10% level. The results indicate that gender is not one of the main determinants for macroeconomic expectations.


Gender differenceMacroeconomic expectationsRisk aversion
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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011