Bioactive Capacity, Sensory Properties, and Nutritional Analysis of a Shelf Stable Protein-rich Functional Ingredient with Concentrated Fruit and Vegetable Phytoactives
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- Grace, M.H., Yousef, G.G., Esposito, D. et al. Plant Foods Hum Nutr (2014) 69: 372. doi:10.1007/s11130-014-0444-7
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Well-known health-protective phytochemicals from muscadine grape and kale were stably complexed with food grade protein (soy or hemp protein isolates) to create biofortified food ingredients for use in a variety of convenient, portable food formulations. The bioactive (anti-inflammatory) potential, sensory attributes and proximates of the prepared formulations were evaluated in this study. Anti-inflammatory properties of the protein-phytoactive ingredient particles were contributed by the polyphenolic content (muscadine-protein) or the combination of polyphenol, carotenoid, and glucosinolate content (kale-protein aggregates). Phytoactive compounds from the fortified matrices suppressed at least two biomarkers of inflammation; most notable with the expression of chronic pro-inflammatory genes IL-6 and Mcp1. Sensory analysis suggested both sweet and savory functional food applications for the biofortified ingredients. Proximate analyses determined that fortification of the soy protein isolate (SPI) with muscadine or kale bioactives resulted in elevated dietary fibers, total carbohydrates, and free sugars, but did not increase calories/100 g dry matrix compared to unfortified SPI. Overall protein content in the aggregate matrices was about 37 % less (muscadine-SPI, kale-SPI and kale- HP50) or 17.6 % less (muscadine-HP50) on a weight basis, likely due to solubility of some proteins during preparation and partial displacement of some protein mass by the fruit and vegetable phytoactive constituents.
KeywordsMuscadineKaleProtein isolateInflammatory biomarkers
Soy protein isolate