Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 69, Issue 1, pp 50–56

Variation and Correlation of Properties in Different Grades of Maple Syrup

  • Amritpal S. Singh
  • A. Maxwell P. Jones
  • Praveen K. Saxena

DOI: 10.1007/s11130-013-0401-x

Cite this article as:
Singh, A.S., Jones, A.M.P. & Saxena, P.K. Plant Foods Hum Nutr (2014) 69: 50. doi:10.1007/s11130-013-0401-x


Thirty five commercial maple syrups from twelve producers in Southern Ontario were evaluated for properties including light transmittance, autofluorescence, density, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), glucose and fructose content, total phenol content, antioxidant potential and mineral content (Mg, Mn, P, Zn, Ca, K, Fe and Pb). A high degree of variability was found in many characteristics, often exceeding an order of magnitude. Syrups were categorized based on light transmission at 560 nm into amber (12), dark (13) and very dark (10) using International Maple Syrup Institute (IMSI) guidelines. No statistical differences were found among grades of syrup for density, pH, TSS, glucose, fructose, total reducing sugars, glucose:fructose ratio, magnesium, manganese or potassium. Darker syrups showed significantly higher autofluorescence, total phenol content, antioxidant potential, phosphorous, calcium and total mineral content. Significant negative correlations of percent transmission with total phenol content, antioxidant potential and total mineral content are reported. Significant positive correlations among total phenol content, antioxidant potential and total mineral content are also described. The results from this study suggest that darker syrups tend to contain more beneficial traits and may be applied in developing functional foods and value added products.


Maple syrup Syrup grades Total phenols Antioxidant potential Mineral content Autofluorescence (E360-F460) 



2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl


360 nm excitation and 460 nm emission


Environment protection agency


Gallic acid equivalent


International Maple Syrup Institute


Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food


Trolox equivalent


Total soluble solids

Supplementary material

11130_2013_401_MOESM1_ESM.doc (43 kb)
Supplementary Table 1(DOC 43 kb)
11130_2013_401_MOESM2_ESM.doc (122 kb)
Supplementary Table 2(DOC 122 kb)
11130_2013_401_MOESM3_ESM.doc (178 kb)
Supplementary Table 3(DOC 178 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amritpal S. Singh
    • 1
  • A. Maxwell P. Jones
    • 1
  • Praveen K. Saxena
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant AgricultureUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada