Public Organization Review

, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 371–384

Service Delivery Through E-Governance: Perception and Expectation of Customers in Fiji and PNG

Authors

    • School of Management & Public Administration, Faculty of Business and EconomicsThe University of the South Pacific
  • Raghuvar Dutt Pathak
    • School of Management & Public Administration, Faculty of Business and EconomicsThe University of the South Pacific
  • Rafia Naz
    • School of Management & Public Administration, Faculty of Business and EconomicsThe University of the South Pacific
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11115-010-0135-2

Cite this article as:
Singh, G., Pathak, R.D. & Naz, R. Public Organiz Rev (2011) 11: 371. doi:10.1007/s11115-010-0135-2
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Abstract

Empirical studies on e-governance are replete with evidences highlighting its potential for improving service delivery. This study was conducted in PNG and Fiji using structured questionnaires distributed to different groups of respondents. The results indicate that e-governance has the potential to improve Public Service Delivery. It is also confirmed through the findings in this research that the expectations of citizens from public services are quite high, but experience has often been negative i.e. there is a huge variance in the perception and expectation of normal citizens in PNG (Papua New Guinea) and Fiji regarding service delivery, quality of services.

Keywords

E-governancePublic service deliveryCustomer servicePNGFiji

Introduction

E-governance not only saves costs but also helps in improving quality, response times, and access to services (ADB 2003; Jones et al. 2007). Some analysts have even noted its role in improving the efficiency and effectiveness of public administration (UN-ECOSOC 2003; Gonzalez et al. 2007; Singh et al. 2010). It is also seen as a tool to increase transparency in administration, reduce corruption, and increase political participation (Seifert and Bonham 2003). Its potential to make governments more competitive and to enable them to face the challenges of the information and communication age has also been noted (UN 2008; UNDP 2010). E-governance that leads to just internal efficiency in the public administration may not necessarily benefit the citizens at large. Real benefits can trickle down to citizens only after relations between public administration and citizens improve (Gilbert and Balestrini 2004; Tan and Pan 2003; Pan et al. 2006). On these grounds, it is essential that e-governance afford clear benefits to citizens (Gilbert and Balestrini 2004) who will then translate into improving citizens’ perception of the public sector (Tolbert and Mossberger 2006). Toshifumi and Himanshu (2004) have pointed out that government, perhaps more than any other organization, can benefit from the efficiencies and improved service that stem from digital processes. The use of ICT in government is not only intended to have a focus on efficiency and effectiveness but also to empower citizens by making available to them an interactive access to and use of information (Gage 2002; Ghosh and Arora 2005; Siau and Long 2005).

South Pacific countries, like many other developing countries of the world are facing problems in efficient public service delivery (ADB 2003). Public service delivery has been inconsistent with citizen preferences and considered feeble in developing countries (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank 2005). The problems of poor service delivery in the Pacific are mostly due to lack of accountability, transparency and commitment in making services work for poor and marginalized citizens (World Bank, World Development Report 2004). Gani et al. (2007) present a good governance index for seven Pacific Island Countries (PICs). Countries were classified as those (1) where governance quality has been improving over the past decade and include countries including Cook Islands, Fiji Islands, Samoa and Vanuatu; and (2) where governance has improved only marginally over the past decade including countries like Papua New Guinea and Tonga. Fiji and PNG best representatives of these two classifications. This is one of the reasons why Fiji and PNG have been chosen as part of this research. Other reasons being their large size, population and services delivery problems.

PNG and Fiji are two biggest countries of South Pacific in terms of population and area. Both countries are grappling to improve the quality of Governance and public service delivery through effective use of ICT. This study examines the potential of information and communication technology (ICT) in improving governance and service delivery in PNG and Fiji. The paper is presented in four sections: a literature review; methodological discussion, including details of sampling procedures and data collection; presentation and discussion of the research findings; and overall conclusions, including discussion of managerial implications and areas for future research.

Literature review

A number of empirical studies have been conducted that highlight the potential of e-governance for improving service delivery. Studies by Ahmed (2004), Bassanini (2003), Bhatnagar (2002, 2003, 2004), Borwankar (2004), Cho and Choi (2004), Fuliya and Bansal (2005), Kang (2001) and Prahalad (2005) demonstrate the impact of e-governance in improving service delivery and enhancing transparency and accountability. According to Bhatnagar (2002, 2003, 2004) e-governance led to greater empowerment in Mexico, Chile, Philippines and even in India. Borwankar’s (2004) investigation in India shows that e-governance led to increased levels of transparency and greater public participation and trust.

Despite much research on service delivery, vigour is still lacking (Augus et al. 2007). Kašubienė and Vanagas (2007) have pointed out that it is crucial to investigate the factors influencing customer perception towards e-governance. They argue also that service quality aspects of e-governance are even more in need of research. Åkesson and Edvardsson (2008) provide a useful guide to improvement. They identify how e-governance could stimulate five dimensions of change in the design of services (service encounter and service process; customers as co-creators and sole producers of services; efficiency; increased complexity; and integration). The present study illustrates the significance of Åkesson and Edvardsson’s findings. The study builds on one by Singh et al. (2010) which used a sample of 400 citizens each from Ethiopia, Fiji and India and found that e-governance will be able to streamline bureaucratic procedures to make operations more efficient.

The paper accepts the propositions of principal-agent theory that problems of accountability and transparency created by asymmetric information flows between agents and principals (Laffont and Martimort 2002; Lane 2003) lead to problems such as corruption and huge time and cost factors in service delivery. ICT enabled systems offer the potential to eliminate opportunities for corrupt use of discretion by dis-intermediating services and allowing citizens to conduct transactions themselves. Such systems also extend accessibility of information within the public sector and by providing enhanced accounting, monitoring and auditing systems; such systems ensure that public business is more fully open to senior managerial and external scrutiny. Enhanced communication means that citizens can be more fully involved in all aspects of government, including policy-making, thus reinforcing the creation of a culture of trust and mutual interest (Naz et al. 2006).

The issue of public service is also one of effectiveness. Effectiveness in customer service typically refers to “doing the right things” and measures constructs like customer satisfaction on dimensions, such as service quality, speed, timing, and human interaction. Providing high-quality and cost-effective public services involves creating organizations with the right approaches and ethos, establishing clear ways of delivering services, and putting the right people in place to respond to the needs of citizens (Rodríguez, et al. 2009). Public service provider in order to attain suitable performance and satisfy customers/citizens has to build new strategies of development, based on the principles of efficiency, effectiveness, and economy of management. Service provider also needs to understand how these services are perceived by citizens. In other words, the relationship between the service concept, the service offered to citizens, and citizen benefits has to be clarified (Grönroos 2007).

The work of early researchers like Crosby (1979), Deming (1986), Juran (1988), Gronroos (1984) and Parasuraman et al. (1985, 1988, 1991a, b) focused attention on the relationship between service quality and business performance. Previously, concern with service quality was confined to private services but recent change agendas have made it also a priority in the public sector (Lagrosen and Lagrosen 2003; Perrott 1996). Therefore the present research is based on the argument that there is a strong relationship between service quality and business performance in public-sector organizations.

To measure the perception of public service experience and expectations, three variables of effectiveness, efficiency and equity have been used. The measures of expectations and perceptions of the service experience tend to focus on a relatively small number of very specific factors, such as how long customers wait to be served. This allows a gap analysis approach through comparing expected service quality with experience (MORI 2002). The same has been reflected in the work of Zeithaml et al. (1985).

Methodology

This study was conducted with a sample of 189 respondents from PNG, and 198 respondents from Fiji. Structured questionnaires were distributed to different groups of respondents (from five geographical areas of Fiji and PNG) using stratified random sampling. Questionnaires targeting individual citizens and public servants were collected via multi-method which entailed personal or face to face interviews; and personally administered questionnaires in a survey conducted between November 2007 and January 2008.The justification for using triangulation was that it enabled the researchers to overcome the advantages and disadvantages of the different modes of data collection and yet ensured at least 90–100% response rate. To test the validity, content or face validity and construct validity was conducted. Face validity was tested in the pilot testing phase and construct validity was ensured by linking theoretical rationale to the concepts being measured as in the introductory section. Before carrying out hypothesis testing, a reliability test of the constructs was carried out to produce Cronbach’s coefficient alpha. Using SPSS software, reliability tests for internal consistency using Cronbach’s alpha as shown in Table 1 was carried out. According to the reliability test in Table 1, it can be seen that the standardized item alpha scores for each variable reaches acceptable scores as all alpha values are above 0.9. Consequently, the internal consistency reliability of the survey instrument and the variables were determined to be reliable. For those scales that were single item scales but utilized in subsequent hypotheses testing, reliability of tests could not be conducted.
Table 1

Reliability test scores

Construct

Cronbach’s coefficient alpha

Fiji

PNG

Public service experience

0.85

0.95

Public service effectiveness

0.89

0.94

Public service efficiency

0.86

0.86

Public service equity

0.86

0.87

Public service expectation

0.94

0.89

Public service expectation effectiveness

0.98

0.96

Public service expectation efficiency

0.94

0.93

Public service expectation equity

0.93

0.89

Public service agencies

0.79

0.95

Public service improvement

0.76

0.92

Source: Questionnaire scale reliability

Scale reliability accepted at alpha value > = 0.5

After data was collected, the next step was to analyze data to test the research hypotheses and answer specific research objectives. The hypotheses for this research were as follows:
  1. H1:

    Public perception of quality for Public Service Delivery System is satisfactory

     
  2. H2:

    There is a variance in public perception of their service delivery experience and expectation

     
  3. H3:

    E-Governance contributes towards effectiveness, efficiency and equity in public services

     
  4. H4:

    Effectiveness, efficiency and equity in public services enhances the quality of public service delivery.

     
  5. H5:

    Adoption of e-governance improves quality of public services

     

Results and discussion

  1. H1:

    Public perception of quality for Public Service Delivery System is satisfactory

     

Quality of Public Service Delivery System was measured by investigating the problems of the system in Fiji and PNG.

In response to question on how you rate the overall quality of Public Service Delivery System in your country? As exhibited in Table 2, of the 198 respondents in Fiji, 16.2% said that PSD is very poor, 44.9% have rated PSD as poor, 31.3% were okay with PSD, and a small per cent- 6.1% rated PSD as good, while 1% rated PSD in Fiji as very good. Of the 189 respondents in PNG, 29.6% said that PSD is very poor, 32.8% have rated PSD as poor, 29.6% were okay with PSD, and a small per cent- 7.9% rated PSD as good, while none of the respondents rated PSD in PNG as very good. This is also in alignment with the studies conducted by ADB (2004), Kavanamur and Okole (2004) and Payani (2000) who revealed that public service delivery is rated poor and ineffective.
Table 2

Rating on the overall quality of public service delivery system in Fiji and PNG

Ratings (Count/%)

Country

VG (1)

G (2)

Ok (3)

P (4)

VP (5)

Total Ratings

Missing Responses

Total

Count %

Count %

Count %

Count %

Count %

Count %

Count %

Count %

Fiji

2

1.0

12

6.1

62

31.3

89

44.9

32

16.2

197

99.5

1

0.5

198

100.0

PNG

0

0

15

7.9

56

29.6

62

32.8

56

29.6

189

100.0

0

0.0

189

100.0

Source: Questionnaire

Also exhibited in Table 3 above, Fiji has mean value of 3.69 with standard deviation of 0.85. PNG has mean value of 3.23 with standard deviation of 0.88. The mean values suggest that in Fiji customers rated public service quality as poor because the mean values are near to 4 rating scale (poor). In the case of PNG, the mean values suggest that citizens were neutral (OK) with PS Quality. Thus findings reveal that Public perception of service quality is poor in Fiji but, OK in PNG.
Table 3

Average of PS rating (PS quality) and indication of the spread the rating in Fiji and PNG

Variables

Country

Mean rank

Mean

S.D rank

S.D

Public service rating (Public service quality)

Fiji

2

3.69

1

0.85

PNG

1

3.84

3

0.94

Source: Questionnaire

S.D stands for standard déviation

Therefore, H1 is rejected.
  1. H2:

    There is a variance in public perception of their service delivery experience and expectation

     
This hypothesis was formulated to know if there is any variance in public perception of their service delivery experience and expectation. To test this hypothesis, paired sample t-test was carried out with the help of SPSS 15. The importance of paired sample t-test is that it intends to identify differences between the mean values, in this case perception (actual experience) in PSD and expectations about (should be; ought to be) service delivery. Hypothesis 1 Results are presented in Table 4 below:
Table 4

Variance in customers perception versus customers expectations in Fiji and PNG

Variables

Country

Mean difference

Sig.

Public service experience and Public service expectation

Fiji

−1.249

0.000

PNG

−0.124

0.036

Source: Questionnaire

Negative difference between perception of public service experience and expectation of public services indicates, low customer satisfaction and a positive result indicate high customer satisfaction. With reference to H2, it is observed that in Fiji and PNG, the difference between Public Service experience and Public Service expectation is negative; implying that the Public Service experience is less than what citizens expect; or in other words Public Service experience does not match Public Service expectations. The value is significant as it is well below p value 0.05. This also means that there is a huge variance between Public Service perception and Public Service expectation. It was clearly seen, that huge variances exist in perceptions (actual experience) and expectations in Fiji and PNG, implying wider citizen dissatisfaction.

Therefore, H2 is accepted.
  1. H3:

    E-Governance contributes towards effectiveness, efficiency and equity in public services

     

This hypothesis was developed to assess whether e-governance has any contribution towards effectiveness, efficiency and equity in various services provided to public in Fiji and PNG. To test this hypothesis, one-sample t test was carried out and this was tested by taking population mean value of zero (assuming it as indifferent response).

Hypothesis 3 Results are presented in Table 5 below.
Table 5

Respondents’ expectations of the key benefits from e-governance-results for Fiji and PNG

Measures

Key positive benefits from using/adopting e-governance in Fiji and PNG

Effectiveness In service

Country

MBE (1) %

SBE(2) %

JHE(3) %

AE(4) %

MAE(5) %

Mean Diff.

Sig. At 5 %

Accurate Response

Fiji

2.5

16.7

52.5

16.2

10.6

3.15897

0.000

PNG

2.1

2.6

20.6

50.3

15.9

3.82081

0.000

Timely Information

Fiji

3.5

23.7

50.0

14.6

6.6

2.96923

0.000

PNG

2.1

2.6

16.4

52.9

17.5

3.88439

0.000

Feedback Response

Fiji

4.5

19.2

55.1

14.1

5.6

2.96923

0.000

PNG

2.1

3.7

16.9

48.7

20.6

3.89080

0.000

Citizen Participation

Fiji

4.0

22.7

53.5

12.6

5.6

2.92821

0.000

PNG

2.1

6.3

19.6

48.1

15.9

3.75287

0.000

Reliability in services

Fiji

6.6

20.2

53.5

12.6

4.5

2.88083

0.000

PNG

2.1

5.8

14.8

45.5

21.7

3.87647

0.000

Assurancea

Fiji

6.1

25.8

46.5

14.1

5.6

2.87113

0.000

PNG

3.2

4.8

23.8

45.5

14.3

3.68786

0.000

Reducing discretion & bribery

Fiji

7.6

24.2

46.5

14.6

4.5

2.83938

0.000

PNG

2.6

5.3

9.5

48.1

26.5

3.98276

0.000

Reducing transaction cost

Fiji

7.6

19.2

52.0

13.6

5.1

2.89119

0.000

PNG

3.2

5.8

15.9

48.7

18.5

3.79885

0.000

Increase transparency and openness

Fiji

7.6

19.2

15.5

14.6

5.6

2.91192

0.000

PNG

2.6

3.2

11.1

42.3

30.2

4.05325

0.000

Efficiency in service

 Low cost factor

Fiji

7.1

17.2

50.5

18.7

4.5

2.96392

0.000

PNG

2.6

4.2

21.2

51.3

12.7

3.72989

0.000

 Low waiting time

Fiji

6.1

26.8

49.0

12.6

4.0

2.81538

0.000

PNG

1.6

5.3

18.5

47.6

19.0

3.83908

0.000

 Procedures streamlined

Fiji

6.1

23.2

47.5

18.7

3.0

2.89231

0.000

PNG

2.6

5.3

9.5

43.9

30.7

4.02874

0.000

Equity in service

 Affordable

Fiji

6.6

21.7

55.1

10.1

4.5

2.84021

0.000

PNG

4.8

3.2

20.6

49.7

13.8

3.70115

0.000

 Accessible

Fiji

5.6

25.3

52.0

10.6

4.5

2.82990

0.000

PNG

3.7

5.3

19.6

47.6

15.9

3.72414

0.000

 Nepotism

Fiji

14.6

24.2

43.4

10.6

5.1

2.66495

0.000

PNG

4.8

5.8

6.9

42.9

31.2

3.98266

0.000

Source: Questionnaire

• Hypothesis Accepted at <0.05

MBE Much below expectation, SBE Slightly below expectation, JAE Just as expected, AE, Above Expectation, MAE Much Above Expectation

aAssurance for this research includes knowledge, courteous, trust and confidence

In analyzing people’s expectations on capabilities/benefits derived from e-governance systems in PNG, it was found that respondents in PNG and Fiji believe that e-governance has significantly affected all the items which e-governance is supposed to facilitate (items 1–9 in effectiveness; items 1–3 in efficiency; and items 1–3 in equity in services). In other words, the benefits are either much above expectation or above expectation (positive rating). All the values are significant as they are below 0.05. Thus, H3 is accepted and it can be inferred that e-governance contributes towards effectiveness, efficiency and equity in services delivered to citizens in PNG and Fiji.
  1. H4:

    Effectiveness, efficiency and equity in public services enhances the quality of public service delivery.

     
This hypothesis was developed to assess whether improved service quality is the result of effectiveness, efficiency and equity in services. To test this hypothesis, one-sample t test was carried out. It was tested by taking population mean value of 0 assuming it as indifferent response. Table 6 presents the results below.
Table 6

Enhancers of service quality (effectiveness, efficiency and equity) for Fiji and PNG

Effectiveness in services

Country

VBP (1) Count

P(2) Count

OK(3) Count

SP(4) Count

NVBP(5) Count

Mean Diff.

Sig. At 5 %

Accurate Response

Fiji

21

49

67

49

12

2.90909

0.000

PNG

40

69

55

22

2

2.34574

0.000

Timely Information

Fiji

50

57

55

0

36

2.38889

0.000

PNG

43

75

52

16

2

2.25000

0.000

Feedback Response

Fiji

48

64

54

28

4

2.37374

0.000

PNG

39

81

47

19

2

2.27660

0.000

Citizen participation

Fiji

35

44

80

37

2

2.63131

0.000

PNG

28

67

71

17

4

2.47594

0.000

Reliability in services

Fiji

35

87

53

20

2

2.32487

0.000

PNG

47

94

29

16

1

2.09091

0.000

Assurance

Fiji

42

80

43

27

4

2.34184

0.000

PNG

41

72

56

18

2

2.30159

0.000

Reducing discretion and chances of bribery

Fiji

64

79

37

14

4

2.06566

0.000

PNG

80

88

11

0

8

1.71658

0.000

Reducing transaction cost

Fiji

30

85

40

34

9

2.53030

0.000

PNG

41

94

43

10

0

2.11702

0.000

Increase transparency and openness

Fiji

38

76

56

20

7

2.40102

0.000

PNG

67

97

15

6

3

1.83511

0.000

Efficiency in services

Cost factor is low in acquiring services

Fiji

31

73

61

31

2

2.49495

0.000

PNG

42

86

52

8

1

2.15344

0.000

Waiting time is low in acquiring services

Fiji

43

79

51

21

1

2.27179

0.000

PNG

54

99

26

8

0

1.93583

0.000

Procedures streamlined by reducing bureaucracy

Fiji

44

80

44

24

2

2.27835

0.000

PNG

64

98

17

8

0

1.83422

0.000

Equity in services

Affordable services

Fiji

31

73

61

31

2

2.52525

0.000

PNG

42

86

52

8

1

2.20213

0.000

Accessible services

Fiji

43

79

51

21

1

2.63673

0.000

PNG

54

99

26

8

0

2.14815

0.000

Nepotism, kickback and greasing the palm

Fiji

44

80

44

24

2

1.96447

0.000

PNG

64

98

17

8

0

1.67553

0.000

Source: Questionnaire

*Hypothesis Accepted at <0.05

In analyzing the drivers of service quality in the two countries, the respondents believe that the drivers (effectiveness, efficiency and equity) are significant and explain service quality. All values are significant as they are below 0.05. Page and Spreng (2002) had defined service quality as “the overall evaluation of service performance”, and so had Zeithaml et al. (1985). This model was also discussed by other researchers as well (Brady and Cronin 2001; Cronin et al. (2000); Dabholkar et al. (2000) ; Parasuraman et al. 1988). Thus, H4 is accepted in both the countries and it can be inferred that service quality is the result of or is positively affected by effectiveness, efficiency and equity in services delivered in Fiji and PNG.

To further test these drivers, chi–square test of independence was carried out. The importance of chi–square is that it intends to identify whether the perceived findings are real or a result of sampling error. With reference to H4, it is expected that PS effectiveness, PS efficiency and PS equity would have an impact on service quality. The output for the test is shown in table 7.
Table 7

Test of independence (Chi square) results for public service quality in Fiji and PNG

Variables

Pearson Chi-square value

Df

Sig.

Fiji PNG

Fiji PNG

Fiji PNG

PS effectiveness

78.21

149.94

27

25

0.000

0.000

PS efficiency

114.72

200.07

10

10

0.000

0.000

PS equity

92.37

136.61

11

10

0.000

0.000

Source: Questionnaire

*Hypothesis Accepted at <0.05

A chi–square test of independence between PS Effectiveness, PS Efficiency and PS Equity indicates that the variables are dependent on each other in the case of Fiji as chi–square = 78.21 for PS Effectiveness with p value 0.000 < 0.05; chi-square = 114.72 for PS Efficiency with p value 0.000 < 0.05; chi square 92.37 for PS Equity with p value 0.000 < 0.05. Therefore, this result supports H4 in the case of Fiji.

For PNG, variables (PS Effectiveness, PS Efficiency and PS Equity) are dependent on each other in the as chi–square = 149.94 for PS Effectiveness with p value 0.000 < 0.05; chi-square = 84.11 for PS Efficiency with p value 0.000 < 0.05; chi square 136.61 for PS Equity with p value 0.000 < 0.05. Therefore, this result supports H2 in the case of PNG as well. Service quality is dependant on and is influenced or is related to/by PS Effectiveness, PS Efficiency and PS Equity. The results are consistent across these two countries. Therefore, H4 is accepted.
  1. H5:

    Adoption of e-governance improves quality of public services

     
This hypothesis was developed to evaluate whether adoption of e-governance improves quality of public services. To test this hypothesis, mean values of e-governance service quality and e-governance service improvements were calculated. Hypothesis 2 Results are presented in Table 8 below:
Table 8

Test of independence (Chi square) results for customer satisfaction in Fiji and PNG

Variables

Country

Mean

Rating

E-governance service quality

Fiji

2.36

Good

PNG

1.93

Average

Service improvements

Fiji

2.32

Somewhat positive

PNG

2.79

Average

Source: Questionnaire

As per the above results, the mean values show that in Fiji, service improvements are somewhat positive and quality of services is good. And for PNG, the mean values show that service improvements are average and quality of services is good.

To further test the relationships between the variables (e-governance, quality of services and service improvements) chi-square test was conducted. This is exhibited in Table 9 below.
Table 9

Average of e-governance service quality and service improvements and the spread (dispersion) in Fiji and PNG

Service improvements

Country

Pearson Chi-square value

Df

Sig.

Benefits from e-governance

Fiji

1036.18

68

0.000

PNG

685.15

54

0.000

E-governance service quality

Benefits from e-governance

Fiji

1036.18

68

0.000

PNG

685.15

54

0.000

Source: Questionnaire

**Hypothesis Accepted at <0.05

Adoption of e-governance leads to service improvements and quality, it was logical to test if e-governance service improvements and quality depend on benefits that citizens derive from such usage i.e. whether e-governance expected benefits influence service quality and service improvements.

A chi–square test of independence indicates that the variable (benefits from e-governance), are dependent on each other in the case of Fiji as chi–square = 1036.18 with p value 0.000 < 0.05 and in PNG, chi square 685.15 with p value 0.000 < 0.05. Therefore, this result supports H5 and it can be said that e-governance service improvements depend on and are influenced or related to the benefits derived from e-governance usage.

Conclusion

The findings of this study imply that the more the progress towards attainment of e-governance goals (of coordination, cost savings and cost effectiveness), the more are the positive impacts in areas affected by the introduction of e-governance (such as provision of services, ability to do the job, government transparency and accountability, convenient services, citizen communication, etc.). This study has explored the role of e-Governance in facilitating service delivery and service quality in the public sector in Fiji and PNG. It has investigated the relationship between e-governance and service quality. Study reveals that Public perception of quality for Public Service Delivery System is not satisfactory in Fiji and PNG. The results indicate that although e-governance has the potential to improve service delivery but, there is also variance in the public of their service delivery experience and expectation. It is therefore, confirmed that the expectations of citizens from public services are quite high, but experience has tended to be negative. This study also confirms that e-Governance contributes towards effectiveness, efficiency and equity in public services that further enhances the quality of public service delivery. Therefore, in Fiji and PNG, there is an urgent need to employ e-governance in all public agencies. This is mainly in view of prevailing concerns about service quality in these countries. Even though the quality of governance in PNG over the last decade has marginally improved in comparison to its neighbours in the South Pacific (Cook Islands, Fiji Islands, Samoa and Vanuatu) more needs to be done to improve service quality, policy making and good governance. Therefore, e-governance here should be seen as a means of improving services in the future.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010