Public Organization Review

, Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 223-244

First online:

National Defense, Environmental Regulation, and Overhead Democracy: A View from the “Greening” of the U.S. Military

  • Robert F. DurantAffiliated withSchool of Public Affairs, American University Email author 

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This study examines the patterns of politics accompanying efforts to hold the United States military accountable to U.S. environmental and natural resources (ENR) laws in the post-Cold War era. This analysis (1) uses three cases to describe what happened, and why, (2) to test several propositions related to military accountability to ENR laws in the post-Cold War era; (3) to offer a typology of tactics used that may help inform future research on intragovernmental regulation more generally; and (4) argues that public agencies have a responsibility to comply with the regulatory processes that hold them accountable to U.S. ENR laws.


Bureaucracy and democracy Overhead democracy Environmental regulation Natural resources management National security The U.S. military