Original Paper

Political Behavior

, Volume 32, Issue 3, pp 423-430

First online:

The Enduring Effects of Social Pressure: Tracking Campaign Experiments Over a Series of Elections

  • Tiffany C. DavenportAffiliated withYale University
  • , Alan S. GerberAffiliated withYale University
  • , Donald P. GreenAffiliated withYale University Email author 
  • , Christopher W. LarimerAffiliated withUniversity of Northern Iowa
  • , Christopher B. MannAffiliated withUniversity of Miami
  • , Costas PanagopoulosAffiliated withFordham University

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access


Recent field experiments have demonstrated the powerful effect of social pressure messages on voter turnout. This research note considers the question of whether these interventions’ effects persist over a series of subsequent elections. Tracking more than one million voters from six experimental studies, we find strong and statistically significant enduring effects one and sometimes two years after the initial communication.


Voter turnout Social norms Habit formation