Political Behavior

, Volume 32, Issue 3, pp 423–430

The Enduring Effects of Social Pressure: Tracking Campaign Experiments Over a Series of Elections


  • Tiffany C. Davenport
    • Yale University
  • Alan S. Gerber
    • Yale University
    • Yale University
  • Christopher W. Larimer
    • University of Northern Iowa
  • Christopher B. Mann
    • University of Miami
  • Costas Panagopoulos
    • Fordham University
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s11109-010-9122-0

Cite this article as:
Davenport, T.C., Gerber, A.S., Green, D.P. et al. Polit Behav (2010) 32: 423. doi:10.1007/s11109-010-9122-0


Recent field experiments have demonstrated the powerful effect of social pressure messages on voter turnout. This research note considers the question of whether these interventions’ effects persist over a series of subsequent elections. Tracking more than one million voters from six experimental studies, we find strong and statistically significant enduring effects one and sometimes two years after the initial communication.


Voter turnoutSocial normsHabit formation

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010