Changes in water relations for Acacia ancistrocarpa on natural and mine-rehabilitation sites in response to an experimental wetting pulse in the Great Sandy Desert
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- Grigg, A.M., Lambers, H. & Veneklaas, E.J. Plant Soil (2010) 326: 75. doi:10.1007/s11104-009-9957-5
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Vegetation plays an essential role in mine-site rehabilitation as it serves to reduce erosion and extract moisture from the soil cover, thus minimising deep drainage to potentially hazardous materials below. Plant water-use patterns and root development are likely to be impacted where subsoils are physically and/or chemically inhospitable and close to the surface, particularly in arid and semi-arid environments where pulses of rainfall are infrequent and interspersed with long dry periods. The aim of this investigation was to determine how plant water relations of the woody shrub species Acacia ancistrocarpa (Maiden and Blakely) were affected by a summer wetting pulse on a degraded mine-rehabilitation site and a pristine natural site in the Great Sandy Desert of north-western Australia. At both the natural and rehabilitation sites, 20 m3 of water was applied to emulate an 80-mm rainfall event comparable with cyclones that occur during the summer wet season. We found that plants responded with significant increases in stomatal conductance, leaf water potential and sap-flow in lateral roots within three days of irrigation at the natural site and two days at the rehabilitation site. At the rehabilitation site this response occurred despite the fact that sinker roots were stunted by impeding physical properties of the mine-waste material. Sap-flow velocity, using the heat ratio method, in lateral and primary sinker roots was close to zero at night and positive during the day for trees at both sites during the dry period before the irrigation. These data indicate hydraulic redistribution was not occurring between the primary sinker and lateral roots at night, and water was transported along the laterals towards the crown, despite the fact they were in dry soil. Excavations revealed that lateral roots extended up to 6 m and displayed secondary sinker roots accessing water from deeper soil layers, even from mine-waste material. These morphological traits likely improved the water relations and survival of A. ancistrocarpa at the rehabilitation site. Considering these traits and the rapid pulse responsiveness of this species, we recommend A. ancistrocarpa for future rehabilitation projects at this and other mine-sites in the region.