Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD[P]H: Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) by a Phenolic Antioxidant, Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA) and Its Metabolite, tert -Butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) in Primary-Cultured Human and Rat Hepatocytes
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This study was aimed to investigate the effects of a phenolic antioxidant, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and its metabolite, tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) on the induction of HO-1, NQO1 and Nrf2 proteins and their regulatory mechanisms in primary-cultured hepatocytes.
After exposure of BHA and tBHQ to primary-cultured rat and human hepatocytes and mouse neonatal fibroblasts (MFs), Western blot, semi-quantitative RT-PCR and microarray analysis were conducted.
Induction of HO-1, NQO1 and Nrf2 proteins and activation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 were observed after BHA and tBHQ treatments in primary-cultured rat and human hepatocytes. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR study and microarray analysis revealed that HO-1 and NQO1 were transcriptionally activated in primary-cultured rat hepatocytes and a substantial transcriptional activation, including HO-1 occurred in primary-cultured human hepatocytes after BHA treatment. Whereas BHA failed to induce HO-1 in wild-type and Nrf2 knock-out MFs, tBHQ strongly induced HO-1 in wild-type, but not in Nrf2 knock-out MFs.
Our data demonstrate that both BHA and tBHQ are strong chemical inducers of HO-1, NQO1 and Nrf2 proteins in primary-cultured human and rat hepatocytes with the activation of MAPK ERK1/2 and JNK1/2. However, in MFs, BHA failed to induce HO-1, whereas tBHQ strongly induced HO-1 in Nrf2 wild-type but not in Nrf2 knock-out, suggesting that Nrf2 is indispensable for tBHQ-induced HO-1 in MF.
- Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD[P]H: Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) by a Phenolic Antioxidant, Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA) and Its Metabolite, tert-Butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) in Primary-Cultured Human and Rat Hepatocytes
Volume 23, Issue 11 , pp 2586-2594
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)
- mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)
- tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ)
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 160 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, New Jersey, 08854, USA
- 2. Department of Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Bristol Myers Squibb Pharmaceuticals, Princeton, New Jersey, USA
- 3. Department of Pharmacy, National University of Singapore, 18 Science Drive 4, Singapore, s117543, Singapore
- 4. Department of Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 675 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, New Jersey, USA