Crumpling of graphene oxide through evaporative confinement in nanodroplets produced by electrohydrodynamic aerosolization

  • Shalinee Kavadiya
  • Ramesh Raliya
  • Michael Schrock
  • Pratim Biswas
Research Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s11051-017-3738-5

Cite this article as:
Kavadiya, S., Raliya, R., Schrock, M. et al. J Nanopart Res (2017) 19: 43. doi:10.1007/s11051-017-3738-5

Abstract

Restacking of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets results in loss of surface area and creates limitations in its widespread use for applications. Previously, two-dimensional (2D) GO sheets have been crumpled into 3D structures to prevent restacking using different techniques. However, synthesis of nanometer size crumpled graphene particles and their direct deposition onto a substrate have not been demonstrated under room temperature condition so far. In this work, the evaporative crumpling of GO sheets into very small size (<100 nm) crumpled structures using an electrohydrodynamic atomization technique is described. Systematic study of the effect of different electrohydrodynamic atomization parameters, such as (1) substrate-to-needle distance, (2) GO concentration in the precursor solution, and (3) flow rate (droplet size) on the GO crumpling, is explored. Crumpled GO (CGO) particles are characterized online using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and off-line using electron microscopy. The relation between the confinement force and the factors affecting the crumpled structure is established. Furthermore, to expand the application horizons of the structure, crumpled GO–TiO2 nanocomposites are synthesized. The method described here allows a simple and controlled production of graphene-based particles/composites with direct deposition onto any kind of substrate for a variety of applications.

Keywords

Crumpling Crumpling force Crumpled graphene oxide Electrospray Graphene oxide Synthesis 

Supplementary material

11051_2017_3738_MOESM1_ESM.docx (4.3 mb)
ESM 1(DOCX 4379 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shalinee Kavadiya
    • 1
  • Ramesh Raliya
    • 1
  • Michael Schrock
    • 1
    • 2
  • Pratim Biswas
    • 1
  1. 1.Aerosol and Air Quality Research Laboratory, Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical EngineeringWashington University in St. LouisSt. LouisUSA
  2. 2.University of Notre DameNotre DameUSA