Rheological behaviour of ethylene glycol-titanate nanotube nanofluids
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- Chen, H., Ding, Y., Lapkin, A. et al. J Nanopart Res (2009) 11: 1513. doi:10.1007/s11051-009-9599-9
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Experimental work has been performed on the rheological behaviour of ethylene glycol based nanofluids containing titanate nanotubes over 20–60 °C and a particle mass concentration of 0–8%. It is found that the nanofluids show shear-thinning behaviour particularly at particle concentrations in excess of ~2%. Temperature imposes a very strong effect on the rheological behaviour of the nanofluids with higher temperatures giving stronger shear thinning. For a given particle concentration, there exists a certain shear rate below which the viscosity increases with increasing temperature, whereas the reverse occurs above such a shear rate. The normalised high-shear viscosity with respect to the base liquid viscosity, however, is independent of temperature. Further analyses suggest that the temperature effects are due to the shear-dependence of the relative contributions to the viscosity of the Brownian diffusion and convection. The analyses also suggest that a combination of particle aggregation and particle shape effects is the mechanism for the observed high-shear rheological behaviour, which is also supported by the thermal conductivity measurements and analyses.