Research Paper

Journal of Nanoparticle Research

, Volume 11, Issue 8, pp 2087-2096

Aquatic toxicity evaluation of TiO2 nanoparticle produced from sludge of TiCl4 flocculation of wastewater and seawater

  • B. C. LeeAffiliated withEnvironmental Science and Technology, Gwangju Institute of Science and TechnologyEnvironmental Exposure Assessment Division, National Institute of Environmental Research
  • , S. KimAffiliated withEnvironmental Science and Technology, Gwangju Institute of Science and TechnologyWater Research Center, Korea Institute of Water and Environment, Korea Water Resources and Corporation (K-water)
  • , H. K. ShonAffiliated withFaculty of Engineering, University of Technology, Sydney Email author 
  • , S. VigneswaranAffiliated withFaculty of Engineering, University of Technology, Sydney
  • , S. D. KimAffiliated withEnvironmental Science and Technology, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology
  • , J. ChoAffiliated withEnvironmental Science and Technology, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology
  • , In S. KimAffiliated withEnvironmental Science and Technology, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology
  • , K. H. ChoiAffiliated withEnvironmental Exposure Assessment Division, National Institute of Environmental Research
  • , J. B. KimAffiliated withSchool of Applied Chemical Engineering and Center for Functional Nano Fine Chemicals (BK21), Chonnam National University
    • , H. J. ParkAffiliated withSchool of Applied Chemical Engineering and Center for Functional Nano Fine Chemicals (BK21), Chonnam National University
    • , J.-H. KimAffiliated withSchool of Applied Chemical Engineering and Center for Functional Nano Fine Chemicals (BK21), Chonnam National University

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Abstract

Flocculation using titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) as a coagulant is an efficient and economical application because the flocculated sludge can be recycled to produce a valuable byproduct, namely titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles. However, toxicity of TiCl4 has not yet been assessed while it is used in water treatment. The aquatic toxicity of TiCl4 flocculation process was investigated to assess the environmental safety of the coagulant. D. magna and V. fischeri bioassays were carried out to evaluate the supernatant toxicity after TiCl4 flocculation. Artificial wastewater, biologically treated sewage effluent, and seawater were used to study the toxicity of TiCl4 flocculation. Results showed that supernatant toxicity was very low when TiCl4 flocculation was conducted (no observed effect concentration = 100 mg/L and lowest observed effect concentration = 150 mg/L exposed to D. magna and V. fischeri, respectively). Similarly, TiO2 nanoparticles recovered from wastewater and seawater flocculated sludge were also found to have low toxicity. The regenerated TiO2 nanoparticles indicated low toxicity values when compared to the commercial-TiO2 nanoparticle, P-25.

Keywords

Aquatic toxicity D. magna V. fischeri Flocculation TiO2 nanoparticle Environment Health and safety EHS