Synthesis and characterization of titanium nitride, niobium nitride, and tantalum nitride nanocrystals via the RAPET (reaction under autogenic pressure at elevated temperature) technique
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- George, P.P., Gedanken, A., Makhlouf, S.B. et al. J Nanopart Res (2009) 11: 995. doi:10.1007/s11051-008-9550-5
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TiN, NbN, and TaN nanocrystals have been selectively prepared through a simple, solvent-free, and convenient reaction under autogenic pressure at moderate temperature (RAPET) process at 350 °C for 12 h, reacting transition metal chlorides and sodium azide. The nanostructures obtained are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A reaction mechanism is suggested based on the experimental results. These rapid reactions produce nanocrystals of TiN, NbN, and TaN with average sizes of approximately 30, 28, and 27 nm, respectively (as calculated from X-ray line broadening). An octahedral inorganic fullerene was detected among the various structures of the TiN.