Factors that affect the efficiency of antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide transfection by insonated gas-filled lipid microbubbles
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- Zhao, YZ. & Lu, CT. J Nanopart Res (2008) 10: 449. doi:10.1007/s11051-007-9274-y
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Objective: To investigate the factors that affect the efficiency of antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide(AS-ODNs) transfection by insonated gas-filled lipid microbubbles. Methods: Lipid microbubbles filled with two types of gases–air and C3F8, were prepared respectively. An AS-ODNs sequence HA824 and a breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3 were used to define the various operating variables determining the transfection efficiency of insonated microbubbles. Two mixing methods, three levels of mixing speed, different mixing durations and various ultrasound initiation time after mixing were examined respectively. Transfection efficiency was detected by fluorescence microscopy. Results: C3F8 microbubbles gave higher levels of AS-ODNs transfection efficiency than air microbubbles in all test conditions. Transfection efficiency resulted from mixing method A (incubation of HA824 and microbubbles before mixing cells) did not show significant difference with that of mixing method B (without incubation of HA824 and microbubbles before mixing cells). Mixing speed, duration of mixing and ultrasound initiation time after mixing were central to determining HA824 transfection efficiency in vitro. The optimum parameters for SK-BR-3 cells were found at a mixing speed of 40–50 rpm for 30–60 s with less than 60 s delay before ultrasound. Conclusion: Ultrasound-mediated AS-ODNs transfection enhanced by C3F8–filled lipid microbubbles represents an effective avenue for AS-ODNs transfer.