Review of innate and specific immunity in plants and animals
First Online: 07 June 2007 Received: 19 March 2007 Accepted: 09 May 2007 DOI:
Cite this article as: Iriti, M. & Faoro, F. Mycopathologia (2007) 164: 57. doi:10.1007/s11046-007-9026-7 Abstract
Innate immunity represents a trait common to plants and animals, based on the recognition of pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by the host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). It is generally assumed that a pathogen strain, or race, may have elaborated mechanisms to suppress, or evade, the PAMP-triggered immunity. Once this plan was successful, the colonization would have been counteracted by an adaptive strategy that a plant cultivar must have evolved as a second line of defence. In this co-evolutionary context, adaptive immunity and host resistance (cultivar-pathogen race/strain-specific) has been differently selected, in animals and plants respectively, to face specialized pathogens. Notwithstanding, plant host resistance, based on matching between resistance (R) and avirulence (avr) genes, represents a form of innate immunity, being R proteins similar to PRRs, although able to recognize specific virulence factors (avr proteins) rather than PAMPs. Besides, despite the lack of adaptive immunity preserved plants from autoimmune disorders, inappropriate plant immune responses may occur, producing some side-effects, in terms of fitness costs of induced resistance and autotoxicity. A set of similar defence responses shared from plants and animals, such as defensins, reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxylipins and programmed cell death (PCD) are briefly described.
Keywords Adaptive immunity Autoimmunity Autotoxicity Fitness costs innate immunity SAR References
Danilova N. The evolution of immune mechanisms. J Exp Zool (Mol Dev Evol) 2006;306B:496–520.
Ausubel FM. Are innate immune signalling pathways in plants and animals conserved? Nat Immunol 2005;6:973–9.
Menezes H, Jared C. Immunity in plants and animals: common ends through different means using similar tools. Comp Biochem Physiol 2002;132:1–7.
Uematsu S, Akira S. PRRs in pathogen recognition. Centr Europ J Biol 2006;1:299–313.
Ingle RA, Carstens M, Denby KJ. PAMP recognition and the plant-pathogen arms race. Bioessays 2006;28:880–9.
Dempsey PW, Vaidya SA, Cheng G. The art of war: innate and adaptive immune responses. Cell Mol Life Sci 2003;60:2604–21.
Iriti M, Faoro F. Fitness costs of chemically-induced resistance: double edged sword or (un)stable equilibrium? J Plant Pathol 2006;88:101–2.
van Burik JH, Magee PT. Aspects of fungal pathogenesis in humans. Ann Rev Microbiol 2001;55:743–72.
Okabayasha K, Hasegawa A, Watanabe T. Capsule associated genes of
. Mycopathologia 2007;163:1–8.
Agrios GN. Plant pathology. 5th ed. San Diego CA: Academic Press; 2005.
Yao Z, Liao W. Fungal respiratory disease. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2006;12:222–7.
Harrison MJ. Signaling in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Ann Rev Microbiol 2005;59:19–42.
Jones JDG, Dangl JL. The plant immune system. Nature 2006;444:323–9.
Abbas AK, Lichtman AH. Cellular and molecular immunology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PE: WB Saunders Company; 2005.
Müller C, Riederer M. Plant surface properties in chemical ecology. J Chem Ecol 2005;31:2621–3651.
Akira S, Uematsu S, Takeuchi O. Pathogen recognition and innate immunity. Cell 2006;124:783–801.
Ganz T. Defensins: antimicrobial peptides of vertebrates. C R Biologies 2004;327:539–49.
Thevissen K, Ferket KKA, François IEJA, Cammue BPA. Interaction of antifungal plant defensins with fungal membrane components. Peptides 2003;24:1705–12.
Bogdan C, Rollinghoff M, Diefenbach A. Reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen intermediates in innate and specific immunity. Curr Opin Immunol 2006; 12:64–76.
Gechev TS, Van Breusegem F, Stone JM, Denv I, Laloi C. Reactive oxygen species as signals that modulate plant stress responses and programmed cell death. Bioessays 2006;28:1091–101.
Halliwell B. Reactive species and antioxidants. Redox biology is a fundamental theme of aerobic life. Plant Physiol 2006;141:312–22.
Pollock JD, Williams DA, Gifford MA, Li L, Du X, Fisherman J, Orkin SH, Doerschuk CM, Dinauer MC. Mouse model of X-linked chronic granulomatous disease, an inherited defect in phagocyte superoxide production. Nat Genet 1995;9:202–9.
Gozzo F. Systemic acquired resistance in crop protection: from nature to a chemical approach. J Agric Food Chem 2003;51:4487–503.
Schultz JC. Shared signals and the potential for phylogenetic espionage between plants and animals. Integ Comp Biol 2002;42:454–62.
Iriti M, Faoro F. Lipid biosynthesis in Spermathophyta. In: Floriculture, ornamental and plant biotechnology, Volume I. In: Teixeira da Silva A, editors. UK: Global Science Books; 2005.
Wyllie AH, Kerr JFR, Currie AR. Cell death: the significance of apoptosis. Int Rev Cytol 1980;68:251–306.
Lam E, Kato N, Lawton M. Programmed cell death, mitochondria and the plant hypersensitive response. Nature 2001;411:848–53.
Iriti M, Sironi M, Gomarasca S, Casazza AP, Soave C, Faoro F. Cell death mediated antiviral activity of chitosan. Plant Physiol Biochem 2006;44:893–900.
Grant M, Lamb C. Systemic immunity. Curr Opin Plant Biol 2006;9:414–20.
Koyama AH, Fukumori T, Fujita M, Irie H, Adachi A. Physiological significance of apoptosis in animal virus infection. Microbes Infect 2000;2:1111–7.
Voinnet O. Induction and suppression of RNA silencing: insights from viral infections. Nat Rev Genet 2005;6:206–20.
Nürnberger T, Lipka V. Non-host resistance in plants: new insights into an old phenomenon. Mol Plant Pathol 2005;6:335–45.
De Young BJ, Innes RW. Plant NBS-LRR proteins in pathogen sensing and host defence. Nat Immunol 2006;7:1243–9.
Chisholm ST, Coaker G, Day B, Staskawicz BJ. Host-microbe interactions: shaping the evolution of the plant immune response. Cell 2006;124:803–14.
Herms DA, Mattson WJ. The dilemma of plants: to grow or defend. Quart Rev Biol 1992;67:283–335.
Balwin IT, Callahan P. Autotoxicity and chemical defence: nicotine accumulation and carbon gain in solanaceous plants. Oecologia 1993;94:534–41.
Federici L, Di Matteo A, Fernandez-Recio J, Tsernoglou D, Cervone F. Polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins: players in plant innate immunity? Trends Plan Sci 2006;11:65–70.
Lebedev KA, Ponyakina ID. New Immunology—Immunology of Pattern Recognition Receptors. Biol Bull 2006;3:417–26.
© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007