Zaker, N. & Hamzeh, A. Multimed Tools Appl (2012) 58: 147. doi:10.1007/s11042-010-0714-9
Tri-way Pixel Value Differencing (TPVD) steganographic method is a new modified version of another well-known method called PVD, which intents to increase embedding capacity and security of its successor by hiding secret bits in both vertical and diagonal edges of a cover image, in addition to the horizontal edges used in PVD. In this paper, it is shown that the histogram of difference values of a stego image under the TPVD algorithms is vulnerable to a particular statistical analysis. So, a new steganalytic measure named Growing Anomalies is introduced that its value has a linear relationship with secret message rate. It is shown empirically and theoretically that proposed steganalysis method based on this measure can estimate the amount of secret bits with a negligible error rate. The proposed steganalyser can classify test images as stego or cover with 97% accuracy when they contain more that 10% secret data. Implementation results indicate that proposed method can estimate secret message rate with an average accuracy of 95%.