Original Paper

Motivation and Emotion

, Volume 38, Issue 5, pp 715-726

First online:

Perfectionism and emotion regulation in coaches: A test of the 2 × 2 model of dispositional perfectionism

  • Andrew P. HillAffiliated withFaculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds Email author 
  • , Paul A. DavisAffiliated withFaculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University

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The manner in which coaches regulate their emotions has implications for their performance and well-being. Drawing on research that has found perfectionism to predict emotion regulation in other settings, this study adopted the 2 × 2 model of perfectionism to examine whether subtypes of perfectionism among coaches were associated with variation in the use of emotion regulation strategies. Coaches (N = 238, M age = 23.92, SD = 10.32) from various sports completed measures of perfectionism (personal standards and evaluative concerns) and emotion regulation strategies (expressive suppression, cognitive reappraisal, and control of anger directed inwards and outwards). Moderated hierarchical regression provided mixed support for the 2 × 2 model. As expected, pure personal standards perfectionism (high standards/low concerns) was generally associated with the highest capacity for emotion regulation and pure evaluative concerns perfectionism (low standards/high concerns) with the lowest. Unexpectedly, mixed perfectionism (high standards/high concerns) was associated with the highest level of expressive suppression, suggesting that in some instances standards might exacerbate rather than attenuate concerns.


Motivation Sport Performance