Electromagnetic Measurements

Measurement Techniques

, Volume 55, Issue 8, pp 949-954

First online:

Contact current modulators with a doubled frequency output

  • Yu. V. AfanasievAffiliated withMendeleev All-Russia Research Institute of Metrology (VNIIM) Email author 
  • , A. Yu. AfanasievAffiliated withMendeleev All-Russia Research Institute of Metrology (VNIIM)

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It is shown that the advantage of contact modulators with an output at a doubled frequency is considerably lower zero shift and drift (time and temperature) and opens up the practical possibility of utilizing not only the nanovolt but also the picovolt ranges of amplified voltages. Two circuits for constructing such modulators are considered. A highly sensitive amplifier of the modulator-demodulator type is described with modulation at doubled frequency, and areas of its application are indicated.


contact modulator amplification of weak constant or slowly varying signals