The effect of partial outlet obstruction on calpain and phospholipase-2 activities: analyzed by severity and duration
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- Callaghan, C.M., Johnson, A., Neumann, P. et al. Mol Cell Biochem (2013) 381: 217. doi:10.1007/s11010-013-1705-8
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In an attempt to better understand the two pathways that lead to bladder decompensation following partial obstruction in rabbits one of which is caused by calcium-activated enzymes and the other by oxidative stress, calpain and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) biochemical assays were conducted to see how bladder decompensation is mediated by these two calcium-activated enzymes. Partial outlet obstructions of varying durations (4, 8, and 12 weeks plus controls) were performed on 32 New Zealand white rabbits. The rabbits were also grouped by severity: control, mild, intermediate, and severe. The activities of Calpain and PLA2 on the muscle tissue of the bladders were analyzed. A stronger correlation was seen between activities and severities as opposed to between activities and durations for both PLA2 and calpain. The activity for PLA2 increased dramatically from control to mild and then stayed constant for both intermediate and severe obstructions. Calpain activity increased steadily from control to mild to intermediate to severe. Based on the increase in levels of the calcium-dependent enzymes, it was clearly shown that calcium levels increased in all stages of bladder decompensation most notably with the mild obstructions. Based on previous studies in which nitrotyrosine and dinitrophenol levels did not increase in mildly obstructed rabbits, the calcium overload pathway may predominate in mild decompensation because cells in mildly obstructed bladders are better able to cope with oxidative stress than increased calcium levels.