Marketing Letters

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 325–337

It is all in the mix: The interactive effect of music tempo and mode on in-store sales

Authors

  • Klemens M. Knoferle
    • Center for Customer InsightUniversity of St. Gallen
    • Center for Customer InsightUniversity of St. Gallen
    • Washington State University
  • Andreas Herrmann
    • Center for Customer InsightUniversity of St. Gallen
  • Jan R. Landwehr
    • Center for Customer InsightUniversity of St. Gallen
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11002-011-9156-z

Cite this article as:
Knoferle, K.M., Spangenberg, E.R., Herrmann, A. et al. Mark Lett (2012) 23: 325. doi:10.1007/s11002-011-9156-z

Abstract

Though practitioners have relied on tempo as a criterion to design in-store music, scant attention has been devoted to the mode of musical selections, and no consideration has been given to the potential for the interactive effects of low-level structural elements of music on actual retail sales. The current research reports a field experiment wherein the positive main effect of slow tempo on actual sales reported by Milliman (J Marketing 46 (3):86–91, 1982, J Cons Res 13 (2):286–289, 1986) is qualified by musical mode. A significant interaction between tempo and mode was evidenced, such that music in a major mode did not vary in effectiveness by tempo while music in a minor mode was significantly more effective when accompanied by a slow tempo. That is, the Milliman effect was eliminated for music in a major mode. Implications of our findings and directions for further research are discussed.

Keywords

Retail atmosphericsMusical tempoMusical modeLinear mixed models

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011