Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Allen, W. R. (1992). The color of success: African American college student outcomes at predominately White and historically Black public college and universities. Harvard Educational Review, 64(1), 26–44.
Bonner, F. A., Lewis, C. W., Bowman-Perrott, L., Hill-Jackson, V., & James, M. (2009). Definition, identification, identity, and culture: A unique alchemy impacting the success of gifted African American millennial males in school. Journal for the Education of the Gifted,
Bowman, P. J. (1992). Methodological issues in research on African American males. In L. E. Gary & M. V. Mbanaso (Eds.), Conference on health and social behavior of African American males. Washington, DC: Institute for Urban Affairs and Research (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Report).
Brook, J. S., Gordan, A. S., Whiteman, M., & Cohen, P. (1986). Dynamics of childhood and adolescent personality traits and adolescent drug use. Developmental Psychology,
Brook, J. S., Whiteman, M., Gordon, A. S., & Cohen, P. (1989). Changes in drug involvement: A longitudinal study of childhood and adolescent determinants. Psychological Reports, 65(3, Pt 1), 707–726.
Brown, D. R., & Gary, L. E. (1991). Religious socialization and educational attainment among African Americans: An empirical assessment. Journal of Negro Education,
Byfield, C. (2008). The impact of religion on the educational achievement of Black boys: A UK and USA Study. British Journal of Sociology of Education,
Ceballo, R., McLoyd, V. C., & Toyokawa, T. (2004). The influence of neighborhood quality on adolescents’ educational values and school effort. Journal of Adolescent Research,
Chandy, J. M., Blum, R. W., & Resnick, M. D. (1996). Female adolescents with a history of sexual abuse: Risk outcome and protective factors. Journal of Interpersonal Violence,
Chavous, T. M., Hilkene-Bernat, D., Schmeelk-Cone, K., Caldwell, C. H., Kohn-Wood, L., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2003). Racial identity and academic attainment among African American adolescents. Child Development,
Chavous, T. M., Rivas-Drake, D., Smalls, C., Griffin, T., & Cogburn, C. (2008). Gender matters, too: The influences of school racial discrimination and racial identity on academic engagement outcomes among African American adolescents. Developmental Psychology,
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Cohen, J., & Cohen, P. (1983). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Cole, E. R. (2009). Intersectionality and research in psychology. American Psychologist,
Cunningham, M. (1999). African-American adolescent males’ perceptions of their community resources and constraints: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Community Psychology,
Cunningham, M., Swanson, D. P., Spencer, M. B., & Dupree, D. (2003). The association of physical maturation with family hassles among African American adolescent males. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology,
De Vaus, D. A., & McAllister, I. (1987). Gender differences in religion: A test of the structural location theory. American Sociological Review,
Eccleston, C. P., Smyth, J. M., & Lopoo, L. M. (2010). Unraveling the race paradox of achievement and self-views. Social Psychology of Education,
Educational Attainment in the United States: 1970–2009. (2009). Statistical abstract of the United States census bureau
. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved on April 9, 2011 from: http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/cats/education/educational_attainment.html
Elder, G. H., & Conger, R. D. (2000). Children of the land: Adversity and success in rural America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Fergus, S., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2005). Adolescent resilience: A framework for understanding healthy development in the face of risk. Annual Review of Public Health,
Ford, D. Y. (1993). Support for the achievement ideology and determinants of underachievement as perceived by gifted, above-average, and average Black students. Journal for the Education of the Gifted,
Fordham, S., & Ogbu, J. U. (1986). Black students’ school success: Coping with the “burden of acting White”. Urban Review,
Francis, L. J. (1997). The psychology of gender differences in religion: A review of empirical research. Religion,
Freeman, R. B. (1986). Who escapes? The relation of churchgoing and other background factors to the socioeconomic performance of Black males from inner-city poverty tracts. In R. B. Freeman & H. J. Holzer (Eds.), The Black youth employment crisis (pp. 353–376). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Gallup, G., Jr., & Lindsay, D. M. (1999). Surveying the religious landscape: Trends in U.S. beliefs. Harrisburg, PA: Morehouse Publishing.
Glanville, J. L., Sikkink, D., & Hernández, E. I. (2008). Religious involvement and educational outcomes: The role of social capital and extracurricular participation. The Sociological Quarterly,
Glaseser, E., & Sacerdotem, B. (2001). Education and religion. Paper no. 1913. Harvard Institute of Economic Research: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Good, M., & Willoughby, T. (2006). The role of spirituality versus religiosity in adolescent psychosocial adjustment. Journal of Youth and Adolescence,
Graham, S. (1994). Motivation in African Americans. Review of Education Research, 64, 55–117.
Graham, S., Taylor, A. Z., & Hudley, C. (1998). Exploring achievement values among ethnic minority early adolescents. Journal of Educational Psychology,
Hebert, T. P. (1998). Gifted Black males in an urban high school: Factors that influence achievement and underachievement. Journal for the Education of the Gifted,
Herndon, M. K. (2003). Expressions of spirituality among African American college males. Journal of Men’s Studies,
Irving, M. A., & Hudley, C. (2008). Cultural identification and academic achievement among African American males. Journal of Advanced Academics,
Jeynes, W. H. (1999). The effects of religious commitment on the academic achievement of Black and Hispanic children. Urban Education,
Jeynes, W. H. (2003). The effects of Black and Hispanic 12the graders living in intact families and being religious on their academic achievement. Urban Education,
Jose, P. E. (2008). ModGraph
-I: A programme to compute cell means for the graphical display of moderational analyses: The internet version, Version 2.0.
Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand. Retrieved [April 21, 2011] from http://www.victoria.ac.nz/psyc/staff/paul-jose-files/modgraph/modgraph.php
Lewis, C., Bonner, F., Butler, B. R., & Joubert, M. (2010). African American male discipline patterns and school district responses resulting impact on academic achievement: Implications for urban educators and policy makers. Journal of African American Males in Education,
Loury, L. D. (2004). Does church attendance really increased schooling? Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion,
Mattis, J. S., & Jagers, R. J. (2001). A relational framework for the study of religiosity and spirituality in the lives of African Americans. Journal of Community Psychology,
McClendon, C., & Wigfield, A. (1998). Group differences in African American adolescents achievement-related beliefs about math and science: An initial study. Journal of Black Psychology,
Mello, Z. R., & Worrell, F. C. (2008). Gender variation in extracurricular activity participation and perceived life chances in Trinidad and Tobago adolescents. Psykhe,
Mickelson, R. A. (1990). The attitude-achievement paradox among Black adolescents. Sociology of Education,
Mickelson, R. A., & Greene, A. D. (2006). Connecting pieces of the puzzle: Gender differences in Black middle school students’ achievement. The Journal of Negro Education,
Miller, R. B., DeBacker, T. K., & Greene, B. A. (1999). Perceived instrumentality and academics: The link to task valuing. Journal of Instructional Psychology,
Milot, A. S., & Ludden, A. B. (2009). The effects of religion and gender on well-being, substance use, and academic engagement among rural adolescents. Youth and Society,
Nasir, N. S., McLaughlin, M. W., & Jones, A. (2009). What does it mean to be African American? Constructions of race and academic identity in an urban public high school. American Educational Research Journal,
Noguera, P. A. (2003). The trouble with Black boys: The role and influence of environmental and cultural factors on the academic performance of African American males. Urban Education,
O’Connor, C. (1999). Race, class, and gender in America: Narratives of opportunity among low-income African American youths. Sociology of Education,
O’Connor, C., Horvat, E., & Lewis, A. (2006). Framing the field: Past and future research on the historic underachievement of Black students. In E. M. Horvat & C. O’Connor (Eds.), Beyond acting White: Reframing the debate on Black student achievement (pp. 1–24). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
Ogbu, J. U. (2004). Collective identity and the burden of ‘acting white’ in black history, community, and education. The Urban Review,
Osborne, J. W. (1999). Unraveling underachievement among African American boys from an identification with academics perspective. Journal of Negro Education,
Oyserman, D., Bybee, D., & Terry, K. (2003). Gendered racial identity and involvement with school. Self and Identity,
Oyserman, D., Harrison, K., & Bybee, D. (2001). Can racial identity be promotive of academic efficacy? International Journal of Behavioral Development,
Pfeifer, S., & Waelty, U. (1995). Psychopathology and religious commitment: A controlled study. Psychopathology,
Regnerus, M. D. (2000). Shaping school success: Religious socialization and educational outcomes in metropolitan public schools. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion,
Riggins, R. K., McNeal, C., & Herndon, M. K. (2008). The role of spirituality among African American college males attending a historically black university. College Student Journal,
Ross, S. I., & Jackson, J. M. (1991). Teachers’ expectations for Black males’ and Black females’ academic achievement. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,
Rowley, S. J., Sellers, R. M., Chavous, T. M., & Smith, M. A. (1998). The relationships between racial identity and self-esteem in African American college and high school students. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
Saggio, J. J., & Rendón, L. I. (2004). Persistence among American Indian/Alaska Native students at a Bible college: The importance of family, spirituality, and validation. Christian Higher Education: A Journal of Applied Research and Practice,
Sanders, M. G. (1998). The effects of school, family, and community support on the academic achievement of African-American adolescents. Urban Education,
Sanders, M. G., & Herting, J. R. (2000). African American urban adolescents. In M. G. Sanders (Ed.), Schooling students placed at risk: Research, policy, and practice in the education of poor and minority adolescents (pp 141–161). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
Scharf, A. A. (1998). Environmental stress, potential protective factors, and adolescent risk-taking. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Fordham University, New York.
Sellers, R. M., Rowley, S., Chavous, T. M., Shelton, N. J., & Smith, M. A. (1997). Multi-dimensional inventory of Black identity: A preliminary investigation of reliability and construct validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
Sellers, R. M., Shelton, J. N., Cooke, D., Chavous, T. M., Rowley, S., & Smith, M. (1998). A multidimensional model of racial identity: Assumptions, findings, and future directions. In R. L. Jones (Ed.), African American identity development: Theory, research, and intervention. Hampton, VA: Cobb & Henry.
Sethi, S., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1993). Optimism and fundamentalism. Psychological Science,
Skiba, R., Michael, R., Nardo, A., & Peterson, R. (2002). The color of discipline: Sources of racial and gender disproportionality in school punishment. The Urban Review,
Smalls, C., White, R., Chavous, T., & Sellers, R. (2007). Racial ideological beliefs and racial discrimination experiences as predictors of academic engagement among African American adolescents. Journal of Black Psychology,
Smith, A., & Lalonde, R. N. (2003). ‘Racelessness’ in a Canadian context?: Exploring the link between Black students’ identity, achievement, and mental health. Journal of Black Psychology,
Spencer, M. B., Dupree, D., & Hartmann, T. (1997). A phenomenological variant of Ecological systems theory (PVEST): A self-organization perspective in context. Development and Psychopathology,
Spencer, M. B., Fegley, S., Harpalani, V., & Seaton, G. (2004). Understanding hyper- masculinity in context: A theory-driven analysis of urban adolescent males’ coping responses. Research in Human Development,
Strayhorn, T. L. (2009). Different folks, different hopes: The educational aspirations of Black males in urban, suburban, and rural high schools. Urban Education,
Swanson, D. P., Cunningham, M., & Beale-Spencer, M. (2003). Black males’ structural conditions, achievement patterns, normative needs, and “opportunities”. Urban Education,
Taylor, R. J., Chatters, L. M., & Levin, J. (2004). Religion in the lives of African Americans: Social, psychological, and health perspectives. Thousand Oaks: Sage Press.
The 2010 Schott 50 State Report on Public Education and Black Males. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.blackboysreport.org
Townsend, B. L. (2000). The disproportionate discipline of African American learners: Reducing school suspensions and expulsions. Exceptional Children,
Walker, K. L., & Dixon, V. (2002). Spirituality and academic performance among African American college students. Journal of Black Psychology,
Weinstein, C. S., Tomlinson-Clarke, S., & Curran, M. (2004). Toward a conception of culturally responsive classroom management. Journal of Teacher Education,
Williams, T. R., Davis, L. E., Cribbs, J. M., Saunders, J., & Williams, J. H. (2002). Friends, family, and neighborhood: Understanding academic outcomes of African American youth. Urban Education,
Wong, C. A., Eccles, J. S., & Sameroff, A. (2003). The influence of ethnic discrimination and ethnic identification on African American adolescents’ school and socio-emotional adjustment. Journal of Personality,