Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Barber, B. L., Eccles, J. S., & Stone, M. R. (2001). Whatever happened to the jock, the brain, and the princess? Young adult pathways linked to adolescent activity involvement and social identity. Journal of Adolescent Research,
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1173–1182.
Brook, J. S., Adams, R. E., & Balka, E. B. (2002). Early adolescent marijuana use: Risks for the transition to young adulthood. Psychological Medicine,
Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., & Pastorelli, C. (2001). Prosocial behavior and aggression in childhood and pre-adolescence. In A. C. Bohart & D. J. Stipek (Eds.), Constructive & destructive behavior: Implications for family, school, & society
(pp. 187–203). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.CrossRef
Carlo, G. (2006). Care-based and altruistically-based morality. In M. Killen & J. G. Smetana (Eds.), Handbook of moral development (pp. 551–579). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Carlo, G., Crockett, L. J., Randall, B. A., & Roesch, S. C. (2007). A latent growth curve analysis of prosocial behaviors among rural adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence,
Carlo, G., & Randall, B. (2001). Are all prosocial behaviors equal? A socioecological developmental conception of prosocial behaviors. In F. Columbus (Ed.), Advances in psychology research (Vol. II, pp. 252–270). Huntington, NY: Nova Science Publishers.
Carlo, G., & Randall, B. A. (2002). The development of a measure of prosocial behaviors for late adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence,
Chen, K., & Kandel, D. B. (1995). The natural history of drug use from adolescence to the mid-thirties in a general population sample. American Journal of Public Health,
Chilenski, S., & Greenberg, M. (2009). The importance of the community context in the epidemiology of early adolescent substance use and delinquency in a rural sample. American Journal of Community Psychology,
Conger, R. D., & Elder, G. H., Jr. (Eds.). (1994). Families in troubled times: Adapting to change in rural America. New York: Aldine.
Crockett, L. J., Shanahan, M. J., & Jackson-Newsom, J. (2000). Rural youth: Ecological and life course perspectives. In R. Montemayor, G. R. Adams, & T. P. Gullotta (Eds.), Adolescent diversity in ethnic, economic, and cultural contexts (pp. 43–74). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Eberly, M. B., & Montemayor, R. (1998). Doing good deeds: An examination of adolescent prosocial behavior in the context of parent/adolescent relationships. Journal of Adolescent Research,
Eccles, J. S., & Barber, B. L. (1999). Student council, volunteering, basketball, or marching band: What kind of extracurricular involvement matters? Journal of Adolescent Research,
Eccles, J. S., Barber, B. L., Stone, M., & Hunt, J. (2003). Extracurricular activities and adolescent development. Journal of Social Issues,
Eisenberg, N., Carlo, G., Murphy, B., & Van Houten, P. (1995). Prosocial developmental in late adolescence: A longitudinal study. Child Development,
Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., & Spinrad, T. L. (2006). Prosocial development. In N. Eisenberg, W. Damon, & R. M. Lerner. Handbook of child psychology: social, emotional, and personality, development, Vol.3 (6th edn.) (pp. 646–718). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Elder, G. H., & Conger, R. D. (2000). Children of the land: Adversity and success in rural America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Ellickson, P. L., D’Amico, E. J., Collins, R. L., & Klein, D. J. (2005). Marijuana use and later problems: When frequency of recent use explains age of initiation effects (and when it does not). Substance Use and Misuse,
Ellis, W., & Zarbatany, L. (2007). Peer group status as a moderator of group influence on children’s deviant, aggressive, and prosocial behavior. Child Development,
Estrada, P. (1995). Adolescents’self-reports of prosocial responses to friends and acquaintances: The role of sympathy-related cognitive, affective and motivational processes. Journal of Research on Adolescence,
Ferguson, D. M., Vitaro, F., Wanner, B., & Brendgen, M. (2007). Protective and compensatory factors mitigating the influence of deviant friends on delinquent behaviours during early adolescence. Journal of Adolescence,
Gardner, M., Roth, J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2009). Sports participation and juvenile delinquency: The role of the peer context among adolescent boys and girls of varied histories of problem behavior. Developmental Psychology,
Gil, A. G., Wagner, E. F., & Tubman, J. G. (2004). Associations between early-adolescent substance use and subsequent young-adult substance-use disorders and psychiatric disorders among a multiethnic male sample in south Florida. American Journal of Public Health,
Goldstein, S. E., Tisak, M. S., Persson, A. V., & Boxer, P. (2006). Children’s evaluations of ambiguous provocation by relationally aggressive, physically aggressive and prosocial peers. British Journal of Developmental Psychology,
Hébert, R. (2008). What’s new in nicotine & tobacco research? Nicotine & Tobacco Research,
Hoffman, M. L. (2001). Toward a comprehensive empathy-based theory of prosocial moral development. In A. C. Bohart & D. J. Stipek (Eds.), Constructive & destructive behavior: Implications for family, school, & society
(pp. 61–86). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.CrossRef
Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling,
Jelicic, H., Bobek, D., Phelps, E., Lerner, R., & Lerner, J. (2007). Using positive youth development to predict contribution and risk behaviors in early adolescence: Findings from the first two waves of the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development. International Journal of Behavioral Development,
Jessor, R. (1984). Adolescent development and behavioral health. In J. D. Matarazzo, S. M. Weiss, J. A. Herd, N. E. Miller, & S. M. Weisss (Eds.), Behavioral health: A handbook of health enhancement and disease prevention (pp. 69–89). New York: Wiley.
Kokko, K., & Pulkkinen, L. (2000). Breaking the cycle of maladaptation. Prevention & Treatment,
Kokko, K., Tremblay, R. E., Lacourse, E., Nagin, D. S., & Vitaro, F. (2006). Trajectories of prosocial behavior and physical aggression in middle childhood: Links to adolescent school dropout and physical violence. Journal Research on Adolescence,
Lacourse, E., Nagin, D. S., Vitaro, F., Côté, S., Arseneault, L., & Tremblay, R. E. (2006). Prediction of early-onset deviant peer group affiliation: A 12-year longitudinal study. Archives of General Psychiatry,
Lambert, D., Gale, J., & Hartley, D. (2008). Substance abuse by youth and young adults in rural America. The Journal of Rural Health,
Lerner, R., Lerner, J., Almerigi, J., Theokas, C., Phelps, E., Gestsdottir, S., et al. (2005). Positive youth development, participation in community youth development programs, and community contributions of fifth-grade adolescents: Findings from the first wave Of the 4-H study of positive youth development. The Journal of Early Adolescence,
Mahoney, J. L. (2000). Participation in school extracurricular activities as a moderator in the development of antisocial patterns. Child Development,
Mahoney, J., & Cairns, R. (1997). Do extracurricular activities protect against early school dropout? Developmental Psychology,
Martino, S., Ellickson, P., & McCaffrey, D. (2008). Developmental trajectories of substance use from early to late adolescence: A comparison of rural and urban youth. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs,
Mason, W. A., Hitchings, J. E., McMahon, R. J., & Spoth, R. L. (2007). A test of three alternative hypotheses regarding the effects of early delinquency on adolescent psychosocial functioning and substance involvement. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology,
Mead, G. H. (1934). Mind, self, and society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2006). Cigarettes and other tobacco products. NIDA Info Facts
. July 2006. Available from: www.drugabuse.gov/pdf/infofacts/Tobacco06.pdf
Osgood, D. W., Anderson, A. L., & Shaffer, J. N. (2005). Unstructured leisure in the after-school hours. In J. L. Mahoney, R. W. Larson, and J. S. (Eds.), Organized activities as contexts of development: Extracurricular activities, after-school and community programs (pp. 45–64). Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Osgood, D. W., Wilson, J. K., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., et al. (1996). Routine activities and individual deviant behavior. American Sociological Review,
Reinke, W. M., Herman, K. C., Petras, H., & Ialongo, N. S. (2008). Empirically derived subtypes of child academic and behavioral problems: Co-occurrence and distal outcomes. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology,
Spoth, R., Randall, G., Trudeau, L., Shin, C., & Redmond, C. (2008). Substance use outcomes 5 1/2 years past baseline for partnership-based, family-school preventive interventions. Drug and Alcohol Dependence,
Suldo, S. M., Mihalas, S., Powell, H., & French, R. (2008). Ecological predictors of substance use in middle school. School Psychology Quarterly,
Sussman, S., Pokhrel, P., Ashmore, R. D., & Brown, B. B. (2006). Adolescent peer group identification and characteristics: A review of the literature. Addictive Behaviors,
Swisher, J. D., Shute, R. E., & Bibeau, D. (1984). Assessing drug and alcohol abuse: An instrument for planning and evaluation. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development,
The Consortium on the School-Based Promotion of Social Competence. (1994). The school-based promotion of social competence: Theory, research, practice, and policy. In R. J. Haggerty, L. R. Sherrod, N. Garmezy, & M. Rutter (Eds.), Stress, risk, and resiliency in children and adolescents: Processes, mechanisms, and interventions (pp. 268–316). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Untitled. (1986, November 29). Philadelphia Inquirer, p. 1B; 4B.
U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1982). Current Population Reports, Series P-60, No. 132, Money income of households, families, and persons in the United States: 1980. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
Vicary, J. R. (1991). Psychological impact of pregnancy on rural adolescents. Final report to the Office of Adolescent Pregnancy Programs for grant No. APR 000933-01, Contract No. 282-90-0047.
Vicary, J., Smith, E., Caldwell, L., & Swisher, J. (1998). Relationship of changes in adolescents’ leisure activities to alcohol use. American Journal of Health Behavior,
Wentzel, K. R. (1991). Classroom competence may require more than intellectual ability: Reply to Jussim (1991). Journal of Educational Psychology,
White, H. R., Flemming, C. B., Min Jung, K., & McMorris, B. J. (2008). Identifying two potential mechanisms for change in alcohol use among college-attending and non-college attending emerging adults. Developmental Psychology,
Youniss, J., McLellan, J. A., Su, Y., & Yates, M. (1999). The role of community service in identity development: Normative, unconventional, and deviant orientations. Journal of Adolescent Research,