Date: 07 Sep 2010
The Longitudinal Relationships Between Rural Adolescents’ Prosocial Behaviors and Young Adult Substance Use
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
While many adolescents and young adults experiment with substances (e.g., alcohol, cigarette smoking, marijuana), recent research suggests that rural youth and young adults may be more at risk for substance use than their urban counterparts. This study was designed to examine the longitudinal relationships between rural adolescents’ prosocial behaviors and substance use in young adulthood. Furthermore, we examined the potential mediating effects of adolescent substance use, academic investment, and delinquency. Rural youth (N = 531; 263 girls) were surveyed in grades 10–12 (Time 1; M age = 16.17; SD = .91) and again in early adulthood (Time 2). Measures of prosocial behaviors, substance use, academic investment, and deviant activities were assessed at Time 1. At Time 2, measures of marijuana use, cigarette smoking, and getting drunk were administered. Overall, the findings showed that rural adolescents who frequently exhibit prosocial behaviors are less likely to engage in substance use in young adulthood than those who exhibit relatively low levels of prosocial behaviors. These findings indicate that prosocial behaviors may have positive health consequences, establishing behavioral trajectories that lead to lower levels of risky health behaviors in adulthood in rural populations.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Barber, B. L., Eccles, J. S., & Stone, M. R. (2001). Whatever happened to the jock, the brain, and the princess? Young adult pathways linked to adolescent activity involvement and social identity. Journal of Adolescent Research, 16, 429–455.CrossRef
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1173–1182.
Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., & Pastorelli, C. (2001). Prosocial behavior and aggression in childhood and pre-adolescence. In A. C. Bohart & D. J. Stipek (Eds.), Constructive & destructive behavior: Implications for family, school, & society (pp. 187–203). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.CrossRef
Carlo, G. (2006). Care-based and altruistically-based morality. In M. Killen & J. G. Smetana (Eds.), Handbook of moral development (pp. 551–579). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Carlo, G., Crockett, L. J., Randall, B. A., & Roesch, S. C. (2007). A latent growth curve analysis of prosocial behaviors among rural adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 17, 301–324.CrossRef
Carlo, G., & Randall, B. (2001). Are all prosocial behaviors equal? A socioecological developmental conception of prosocial behaviors. In F. Columbus (Ed.), Advances in psychology research (Vol. II, pp. 252–270). Huntington, NY: Nova Science Publishers.
Carlo, G., & Randall, B. A. (2002). The development of a measure of prosocial behaviors for late adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 31, 31–44.CrossRef
Conger, R. D., & Elder, G. H., Jr. (Eds.). (1994). Families in troubled times: Adapting to change in rural America. New York: Aldine.
Crockett, L. J., Shanahan, M. J., & Jackson-Newsom, J. (2000). Rural youth: Ecological and life course perspectives. In R. Montemayor, G. R. Adams, & T. P. Gullotta (Eds.), Adolescent diversity in ethnic, economic, and cultural contexts (pp. 43–74). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Eberly, M. B., & Montemayor, R. (1998). Doing good deeds: An examination of adolescent prosocial behavior in the context of parent/adolescent relationships. Journal of Adolescent Research, 13, 403–432.CrossRef
Eccles, J. S., & Barber, B. L. (1999). Student council, volunteering, basketball, or marching band: What kind of extracurricular involvement matters? Journal of Adolescent Research, 14, 10–43.CrossRef
Eccles, J. S., Barber, B. L., Stone, M., & Hunt, J. (2003). Extracurricular activities and adolescent development. Journal of Social Issues, 59, 865–889.CrossRef
Eisenberg, N., Carlo, G., Murphy, B., & Van Houten, P. (1995). Prosocial developmental in late adolescence: A longitudinal study. Child Development, 66, 911–936.CrossRef
Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., & Spinrad, T. L. (2006). Prosocial development. In N. Eisenberg, W. Damon, & R. M. Lerner. Handbook of child psychology: social, emotional, and personality, development, Vol.3 (6th edn.) (pp. 646–718). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Elder, G. H., & Conger, R. D. (2000). Children of the land: Adversity and success in rural America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Estrada, P. (1995). Adolescents’self-reports of prosocial responses to friends and acquaintances: The role of sympathy-related cognitive, affective and motivational processes. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 5, 173–200.CrossRef
Ferguson, D. M., Vitaro, F., Wanner, B., & Brendgen, M. (2007). Protective and compensatory factors mitigating the influence of deviant friends on delinquent behaviours during early adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 30, 33–50.CrossRef
Goldstein, S. E., Tisak, M. S., Persson, A. V., & Boxer, P. (2006). Children’s evaluations of ambiguous provocation by relationally aggressive, physically aggressive and prosocial peers. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 24, 701–708.CrossRef
Hébert, R. (2008). What’s new in nicotine & tobacco research? Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 10, 247–252.CrossRef
Hoffman, M. L. (2001). Toward a comprehensive empathy-based theory of prosocial moral development. In A. C. Bohart & D. J. Stipek (Eds.), Constructive & destructive behavior: Implications for family, school, & society (pp. 61–86). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.CrossRef
Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55.CrossRef
Jelicic, H., Bobek, D., Phelps, E., Lerner, R., & Lerner, J. (2007). Using positive youth development to predict contribution and risk behaviors in early adolescence: Findings from the first two waves of the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 31, 263–273.CrossRef
Jessor, R. (1984). Adolescent development and behavioral health. In J. D. Matarazzo, S. M. Weiss, J. A. Herd, N. E. Miller, & S. M. Weisss (Eds.), Behavioral health: A handbook of health enhancement and disease prevention (pp. 69–89). New York: Wiley.
Kokko, K., & Pulkkinen, L. (2000). Breaking the cycle of maladaptation. Prevention & Treatment, 3, 1–10.
Kokko, K., Tremblay, R. E., Lacourse, E., Nagin, D. S., & Vitaro, F. (2006). Trajectories of prosocial behavior and physical aggression in middle childhood: Links to adolescent school dropout and physical violence. Journal Research on Adolescence, 16, 403–428.CrossRef
Lerner, R., Lerner, J., Almerigi, J., Theokas, C., Phelps, E., Gestsdottir, S., et al. (2005). Positive youth development, participation in community youth development programs, and community contributions of fifth-grade adolescents: Findings from the first wave Of the 4-H study of positive youth development. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 25, 17–71.CrossRef
Martino, S., Ellickson, P., & McCaffrey, D. (2008). Developmental trajectories of substance use from early to late adolescence: A comparison of rural and urban youth. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 69, 430–440.PubMed
Mead, G. H. (1934). Mind, self, and society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2006). Cigarettes and other tobacco products. NIDA Info Facts. July 2006. Available from: www.drugabuse.gov/pdf/infofacts/Tobacco06.pdf.
Osgood, D. W., Anderson, A. L., & Shaffer, J. N. (2005). Unstructured leisure in the after-school hours. In J. L. Mahoney, R. W. Larson, and J. S. (Eds.), Organized activities as contexts of development: Extracurricular activities, after-school and community programs (pp. 45–64). Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Osgood, D. W., Wilson, J. K., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., et al. (1996). Routine activities and individual deviant behavior. American Sociological Review, 61, 635–655.CrossRef
Suldo, S. M., Mihalas, S., Powell, H., & French, R. (2008). Ecological predictors of substance use in middle school. School Psychology Quarterly, 2, 373–388.CrossRef
Swisher, J. D., Shute, R. E., & Bibeau, D. (1984). Assessing drug and alcohol abuse: An instrument for planning and evaluation. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 17, 91–97.
The Consortium on the School-Based Promotion of Social Competence. (1994). The school-based promotion of social competence: Theory, research, practice, and policy. In R. J. Haggerty, L. R. Sherrod, N. Garmezy, & M. Rutter (Eds.), Stress, risk, and resiliency in children and adolescents: Processes, mechanisms, and interventions (pp. 268–316). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Untitled. (1986, November 29). Philadelphia Inquirer, p. 1B; 4B.
U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1982). Current Population Reports, Series P-60, No. 132, Money income of households, families, and persons in the United States: 1980. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
Vicary, J. R. (1991). Psychological impact of pregnancy on rural adolescents. Final report to the Office of Adolescent Pregnancy Programs for grant No. APR 000933-01, Contract No. 282-90-0047.
Vicary, J., Smith, E., Caldwell, L., & Swisher, J. (1998). Relationship of changes in adolescents’ leisure activities to alcohol use. American Journal of Health Behavior, 22, 276–282.
Wentzel, K. R. (1991). Classroom competence may require more than intellectual ability: Reply to Jussim (1991). Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 156–158.CrossRef
Youniss, J., McLellan, J. A., Su, Y., & Yates, M. (1999). The role of community service in identity development: Normative, unconventional, and deviant orientations. Journal of Adolescent Research, 14(2), 248–261.CrossRef
- The Longitudinal Relationships Between Rural Adolescents’ Prosocial Behaviors and Young Adult Substance Use
Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Volume 40, Issue 9 , pp 1192-1202
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer US
- Additional Links
- Prosocial behaviors
- Substance use
- Young adulthood