Who, What, Where, When, and Why: Demographic and Ecological Factors Contributing to Hostile School Climate for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
This study examines how locational (region and locale), community-level (school district poverty and adult educational attainment), and school district-level (district size and ratios of students to key school personnel) variables are related to indicators of hostile school climate for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. Indicators of hostile climate included frequency of homophobic remarks and victimization regarding sexual orientation and gender expression. We used data from a national survey of LGBT secondary school students (N = 5,420; 57.6% female; 65.5% White; mean age = 15.9). Results from regression analyses demonstrated that LGBT youth in rural communities and communities with lower adult educational attainment may face particularly hostile school climates. School district characteristics contributed little to the variation in LGBT youth’s experiences. Findings highlight the importance of considering the multiple contexts that LGBT youth inhabit, particularly as they pertain to educational experiences.
- Bochenek, M., & Brown, A. W. (2001). Hatred in the hallways: Violence and discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender students in US schools. New York: Human Rights Watch.
- Bontempo, D. E., & D’Augelli, A. R. (2002). Effects of at-school victimization and sexual orientation on lesbian, gay, or bisexual youths’ health risk behavior. The Journal of Adolescent Health, 30, 364–374. doi:10.1016/S1054-139X(01)00415-3. CrossRef
- Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977). Toward an experimental ecology of human development. The American Psychologist, 32, 513–531. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.32.7.513. CrossRef
- D’Augelli, A. R., Pilkington, N. W., & Hershberger, S. L. (2002). Incidence and mental health impact of sexual orientation victimization of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths in high school. School Psychology Quarterly, 17(2), 148–167. doi:10.1521/scpq.22.214.171.12454. CrossRef
- Dinkes, R., Cataldi, E. F., & Lin-Kelly, W. (2007). Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2007 (No. NCES 2008021). Washington, DC: National Center for Educational Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, US Department of Education.
- Egan, P., & Sherrill, K. (2005, February). Neither an in-law nor an outlaw be: Trends in Americans’ attitudes toward gay people. Public Opinion Pros. Retrieved August 18, 2008 from http://www.publicopinionpros.com/features/2005/feb/sherrill_egan.asp.
- Fineran, S. (2001). Peer sexual harassment in high school. Journal of School Social Work, 11(2), 50–69.
- Fontaine, J. H. (1998). Evidencing a need: School counselors’ experiences with gay and lesbian students. Professional School Counseling, 1(3), 8–14.
- Galliher, R. V., Rostosky, S. S., & Hughes, H. K. (2004). School belonging, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms in adolescents: An examination of sex, sexual attraction status, and urbanicity. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 33(3), 235–245. doi:10.1023/B:JOYO.0000025322.11510.9d. CrossRef
- Goodenow, C., Szalacha, L., & Westheimer, K. (2006). School support groups, other school factors, and the safety of sexual minority adolescents. Psychology in the Schools, 43(5), 573–589. doi:10.1002/pits.20173. CrossRef
- Greytak, E. A., Kosciw, J. G., & Fischer, S. (2007). Who wouldn’t want to make schools safer for LGBT students?: An examination of teachers’ beliefs about LGBT students and school climate. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL.
- Herek, G. M. (2002). Heterosexuals’ attitudes toward bisexual men and women in the United States. Journal of Sex Research, 39(4), 264–274.
- Horn, S. S., & Nucci, L. (2003). The multidimensionality of adolescents’ beliefs about and attitudes toward gay and lesbian peers in school. Equity & Excellence in Education, 36(2), 136–147. doi:10.1080/10665680303507. CrossRef
- Kirkey, K., & Forsyth, A. (2001). Men in the valley: Gay male life on the suburban-rural fringe. Journal of Rural Studies, 17, 421–441. doi:10.1016/S0743-0167(01)00007-9. CrossRef
- Kosciw, J. G., & Cullen, M. K. (2002). 2001 National School Climate Survey: The experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth in our nation’s schools. New York: Gay, Lesbian, and Straight Education Network.
- Kosciw, J. G., & Diaz, E. M. (2006). The 2005 National School Climate Survey: The experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth in our nation’s schools. New York: Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network. Retrieved August 18, 2008 from http://www.glsen.org.
- Kosciw, J. G., Diaz, E. M., & Greytak, E. A. (2008). The 2007 National School Climate Survey: The experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth in our nation’s school. New York: Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network.
- Lambert, E. G., Ventura, L. A., Hall, D. E., & Cluse-Tolar, T. (2006). College students’ views on gay and lesbian issues: Does education make a difference? Journal of Homosexuality, 50(4), 1–30. doi:10.1300/J082v50n04_01. CrossRef
- Lewis, G. B., & Taylor, H. E. (2001). Public opinion toward gay and lesbian teachers: Insights for all public employees. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 21(2), 133–151. doi:10.1177/0734371X0102100203. CrossRef
- McCready, L. (2001). When fitting in isn’t an option, or, why Black queer males at a California high school stay away from Project 10. In K. Kumashiro (Ed.), Troubling intersections of race and sexuality (pp. 37–53). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
- Moore, L. M., & Ovadia, S. (2006). Accounting for spatial variation in tolerance: The effects of education and religion. Social Forces, 84(4), 2205–2222. doi:10.1353/sof.2006.0101. CrossRef
- Murdock, T. B., & Bolch, M. B. (2005). Risk and protective factors for poor school adjustment in lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) high school youth: Variable and person-centered analyses. Psychology in the Schools, 42, 159–172. doi:10.1002/pits.20054. CrossRef
- Nansel, T. R., Overpeck, M., Pilla, R. S., Ruan, W. J., Simons-Morton, B., & Scheidt, P. (2001). Bullying behaviors among US youth: Prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285(16), 2094–2100. doi:10.1001/jama.285.16.2094. CrossRef
- Ohlander, J., Batalova, J., & Treas, J. (2005). Explaining educational influences on attitudes toward homosexual relations. Social Science Research, 34(4), 781–799.
- Parks, C. W. (2001). African–American same-gender-loving youths and families in urban schools. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, 13(3), 41–56. doi:10.1300/J041v13n03_03. CrossRef
- Pearson, J., Muller, C., & Wilkinson, L. (2007). Adolescent same-sex attraction and academic outcomes: The role of school attachment and engagement. Social Problems, 54(4), 523–542. doi:10.1525/sp.2007.54.4.523. CrossRef
- Poteat, V. P., & Espelage, D. L. (2007). Predicting psychosocial consequences of homophobic victimization in middle school students. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 27(2), 175–191. doi:10.1177/0272431606294839. CrossRef
- Powers, R. S., Suitor, J. J., Guerra, S., Shackelford, M., Mecom, D., & Gusman, K. (2003). Regional differences in gender-role attitudes: Variations by gender and race. Gender Issues, 21(2), 41–54. doi:10.1007/s12147-003-0015-y. CrossRef
- Preston, D. B., D’Augelli, A. R., Kassab, C. D., & Starks, M. T. (2007). The relationship of stigma to the sexual risk behavior of rural men who have sex with men. AIDS Education and Prevention, 19(3), 218–230. doi:10.1521/aeap.2007.19.3.218. CrossRef
- Russell, S. T., McGuire, J. K., Laub, C., Manke, E., O’Shaughnessy, M., Heck, K., & Calhoun, C. (2006). Harassment in school based on actual or perceived sexual orientation: Prevalence and consequences. California Research Brief No. 2. San Francisco, CA: California Safe Schools Coalition. Retrieved August 18, 2008 from http://www.casafeschools.org.
- Russell, S. T., Seif, H., & Truong, N. L. (2001). School outcomes of sexual minority youth in the United States: Evidence from a national study. Journal of Adolescence, 24, 111–127. doi:10.1006/jado.2000.0365. CrossRef
- Sausa, L. (2005). Translating research into practice: Trans youth recommendations for improving school systems. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Issues in Education, 3(1), 15–28. doi:10.1300/J367v03n01_04. CrossRef
- Smyser, M., & Reis, E. (2002). Bullying and bias-based harassment in King County middles schools. Public Health Data Watch, 5(2), 1–15.
- Snively, C. A. (2004). Building community-based alliances between GLBTQQA youth and adults in rural settings. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, 16(3/4), 99–112.
- Suitor, J. J., & Carter, R. S. (1999). Jocks, nerds, babes and thugs: A research note on regional differences in adolescent gender norms. Gender Issues, 17(3), 87–101. doi:10.1007/s12147-999-0005-9. CrossRef
- Sullivan, M. (2003). Homophobia, history, and homosexuality: Trends for sexual minorities. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 8(2/3), 1–14.
- Szalacha, L. A. (2003). Safer sexual diversity climates: Lessons learned from an evaluation of Massachusetts safe schools program for gay and lesbian students. American Journal of Education, 110, 58–88. doi:10.1086/377673. CrossRef
- Ueno, K. (2005). Sexual orientation and psychological distress in adolescence: Examining interpersonal stressors and social support processes. Social Psychology Quarterly, 68(3), 258–277. CrossRef
- United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2000). Common Core of Data: School District Demographics, 2000 [Data file]. Available from National Center for Education Statistics web site, http://nces.ed.gov/ccd/bat/. Retrieved August 18, 2008.
- United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2006). Common Core of Data: Public Elementary/Secondary School Universe Survey, 2005-06 [Data file]. Washington, DC: US Department of Education. Available from National Center for Education Statistics web site, http://nces.ed.gov/ccd/index.asp. Retrieved August 18, 2008.
- Unnever, J. D., & Cornell, D. G. (2004). Middle school victims of bullying: Who reports being bullied? Aggressive Behavior, 30(5), 373–388. doi:10.1002/ab.20030. CrossRef
- Warner, B. S., Weist, M. D., & Krulak, A. (1999). Risk factors for school violence. Urban Education, 34(1), 52–68. doi:10.1177/0042085999341004. CrossRef
- Woronoff, R., Estrada, R., & Sommer, S. (2006). Out of the margins: A report on regional listening forums highlighting the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning youth in care (No. ERIC: ED492067). New York, NY/Washington, DC: Child Welfare League of America & Lambda Legal Defense & Education Fund.
- Wyss, S. E. (2004). This is my hell: The violence experienced by gender non-conforming youth in US high schools. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 17(5), 709–730. doi:10.1080/0951839042000253676. CrossRef
- Who, What, Where, When, and Why: Demographic and Ecological Factors Contributing to Hostile School Climate for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth
Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Volume 38, Issue 7 , pp 976-988
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer US
- Additional Links
- LGBT youth
- School climate
- Bullying and harassment
- Contextual factors