Review

Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation

, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 333-352

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Predictors for Work Participation in Individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

  • Anja HolwerdaAffiliated withDepartment of Health Sciences, Community and Occupational Medicine, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of GroningenDepartment of Health Sciences, Community and Occupational Medicine, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen Email author 
  • , Jac J. L. van der KlinkAffiliated withDepartment of Health Sciences, Community and Occupational Medicine, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen
  • , Johan W. GroothoffAffiliated withDepartment of Health Sciences, Community and Occupational Medicine, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen
  • , Sandra BrouwerAffiliated withDepartment of Health Sciences, Community and Occupational Medicine, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen

Abstract

Introduction Research shows that only about 25% of people with autism are employed. Method We conducted a systematic review on factors facilitating or hindering work participation of people with autism in longitudinal studies. An extensive search in biomedical and psychological databases yielded 204 articles and 18 satisfied all inclusion criteria. We assessed the methodological quality of included studies using an established criteria list. Results Seventeen factors were identified and categorized as disease-related factors, personal factors or external factors. Limited cognitive ability was the only significant predictor consistently found for work outcome. Functional independence and institutionalization were both reported by one study to be significantly related to work outcome. Inconsistent findings or non significant findings were reported for the other fourteen factors. Conclusion These findings emphasize the need for more high quality cohort studies focussing on work participation as the main outcome among people with Autism.

Keywords

Autism Work participation Predictors