Enhancement and Characterization of Chitosan Extraction from the Wastes of Shrimp Packaging Plants
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- Alishahi, A., Mirvaghefi, A., Tehrani, M.R. et al. J Polym Environ (2011) 19: 776. doi:10.1007/s10924-011-0321-5
Chitin is the second most abundant carbohydrate polymer in nature next to cellulose. The main source of chitin is crustacean shells. Chitosan, derived from chitin by alkaline deacetylation, characteristically plays an important role in applications. Several parameters determine the chitosan specifications, namely, chitosan sources, incubation time, pretreatment conditions, temperature and acid and alkaline treatment. Chitosan extraction has been achieved by microwave heating and compared with that of conducting the deacetylation in an autoclave. High molecular weight chitosan (as determined by viscosity measurements of chitosan in dilute acetic acid solution), white color, high water binding capacity (WBC) and fat binding capacity (FBC) has been obtained by microwave treatment. In addition, microwave treatment saves a large amount of energy (due to the shorter time of heating) which is a very important factor for commercial productions. The data extracted from X-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy have shown more crystalline and higher DDA of chitosan produced in microwave than the one in autoclave. Moreover, the antibacterial activity of chitosan prepared by microwaves was higher than that produced using the autoclave.