Ferlay J, Bray F, Pisani P et al. GLOBOCAN 2002: cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide. Lyon, France: IARC Press; 2004. CancerBase no. 5, version 2.0 [data on CD-Rom].
American Cancer Society. Cancer facts & figures for African Americans 2009–2010. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society; 2009.
American Cancer Society. Cancer facts & figures 2009. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society; 2009.
US Cancer Statistics Working Group. United States cancer statistics: 2002 incidence and mortality. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Cancer Institute; 2005.
Ukoli F, Osime U, Akereyeni F, et al. Prevalence of elevated serum prostate-specific antigen in rural Nigeria. Int J Uro. 2003;10(6):315–22.CrossRef
Angwafo FF. Migration and prostate cancer: an international perspective. J Natl Med Assoc Nov. 1998;90(11 Suppl):S720–3.
Ogunbiyi JO, Shittu OB. Increased incidence of prostate cancer in Nigerians. J Natl Med Assoc. 1999;91:159–64.PubMed
Ekwere PD, Egbe SN. The changing pattern of prostate cancer in Nigerians: current status in the Southeastern States. J Natl Med Assoc. 2000;94(7):619–27.
Waterhouse J, Muir CS, Shanmugaratnam K, Powell J, Peacham D, Whelan SL, (eds). Cancer incidence in five continents. Lyon: IARC SCi. Publications; 1982; 42: (volume 4): 210–13.
Parkin DM, Muir CS, Whelan SL, et al. Cancer incidence in five continents. Lyon: IARC Sci. Publications; 1992; 120: (volume vii): 45–55;182–93.
Thomas JO. Cancer registration and diagnosis in Ibadan. Arch. Ibadan Med. 2000;1:5–6.
Gronberg H. Prostate cancer epidemiology. Lancet. 2000;361:859–64.CrossRef
Odedina FT, Ogunbiyi F, Ukoli F. Prostate cancer burden in African-Americans: can the origin be traced to Ancestral African relatives? J Natl Med Assoc. 2006;98(4):539–43.PubMed
Odedina FT, Akinremi TO, Chinegwundoh F, et al. Does the prostate cancer disparities seen in US Black men follow the path of the transatlantic slave trade? Infect Agent Cancer 2009; 4 (Suppl 1):S2.
Kittles RA, Young D, Weinrich S, et al. Extent of linkahe disequililibrium between the androgen receptor gene CAG and GGC repeats in human populations: implications for prostate cancer risk. Hum Genet. 2001;109(3):253–61.PubMedCrossRef
Zeiler-Johnson CM, Walker AH, Mancke B, et al. Ethnic difference in the frequency of prostate cancer susceptibility alleles at SRD5A2 and CYP3A4. Hum Hered. 2000;54(1):13–21.CrossRef
Salinas CA, Kwon E, Carlson CS, et al. Multiple independent genetic variants in the 8q24 region are associated with prostate cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17(5):1203–13.PubMedCrossRef
Robbins C, Torres JB, Hooker S, et al. Confirmation study of prostate cancer risk variants at 8q24 in African Americans identifies a novel risk locus. Genome Res 2007;17(12):1717–22. Epub 2007 Oct 31.
Yeager M, Orr N, Hayes RB, et al. Genome-wide association study of prostate cancer identifies a second risk locus at 8q24. Nat Genet 2007;39(5):645–9. Epub 2007 Apr 1.
Freedman ML, Haiman CA, Patterson N, et al. Admixture mapping identifies 8q24 as a prostate cancer risk locus in African-American men. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006;103(38):14068–73. Epub 2006 Aug 31.
Thomas H. The slave trade. The story of the Atlantic slave trade: 1440–1870. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster Paperbacks; 1997.
Lovejoy PE. Transformations in slavery: a history of slavery in Africa. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press; 2000.
Kayser M, Brauer S, Schadlich H, et al. Y Chromosome STR haplotypes and the genetic structure in US populations of African, European, and hispanic ancestry. Genome Res. 2003;13:624–34.PubMedCrossRef
Kittles RA, Chen W, Panguluri RK. CYP3A4-V and prostate cancer in African Americans: causal or confounding association because of population stratification? Hum Genet. 2002;1 10(6):553–0.
Kent MM. Immigration and America’s black population. Popul Bull. 2007;62(4):1–18.
House JS, Kessler RC, Herzog AR, Mero RP, Kinney AM, Breslow MJ. Age, socioeconomic status and health. Milbank Q. 1990;68:383–411.PubMedCrossRef
Stephen EH, Foote K, Hendershot GE, Schoemborn CA. Health of the foreign-born population. Advance data from vital and health statistics. 1994;241:1–10.
US Bureau of the Census. Census of population and housing. Public-use microdata samples. US Government Printing Office; 2000.
Singh GK, Miller BA. Health, life expectancy, and mortality patterns among immigrant populations in the United States. Can J Public Health. 2004;95(3):I14–21.PubMed
Fang J, Madhavan S, Alderman MH. Influence of nativity on cancer mortality among black New Yorkers. Cancer. 1997;80:129–35.PubMedCrossRef
Read JG, Emerson MO, Tarlov A. Implications of black immigrant health for US racial disparities in health. J Immigr Health. 2005;7(3):205–12.PubMedCrossRef
Venters H, Gany F. African immigrant health. J Immigr Minor Health. Apr 2009; 4 [Epub ahead of print].
David R, Collins J. Differing birth weight among infants born of US-born blacks, African-born blacks, and US-born whites. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:1209–14.PubMedCrossRef
Singh GK, Siahpush M. Ethnic-immigration differentials in health behaviors, morbidity, and cause-specific mortality in the United States: an analysis of two national data bases. Hum Bio. 2002;74:83–109.CrossRef
Harrison I, Harrison D. The black family experience and health behavior. In: Crawford C, editors. Health and the family: a medical-sociological analysis. New York: Macmillan; 1971:171–99.
Read JG, Emerson MO. Racial context, black immigration and the US black/white health disparity. Soc Forces. 2005;84(1):181–99.CrossRef
Dey AN, Lucas JW. Physical and mental health characteristics of US- and foreign-born adults: United States, 1998–2003. Adv Data. 2006;369:1–19.PubMed
Odedina FT, Yu D, Akinremi TO, Reams RR, Freedman ML, Kumar N. Prostate cancer cognitive-behavioral factors in a West African population. J Immigr Minor Health 2009;11(4):258–67. Epub 2008 Dec 4.
Wolf RL, Lepore SJ, Vandergift JL, et al. Knowledge, barriers and stage of change as correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption among urban and mostly immigrant black men. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(8):1315–22.PubMedCrossRef
Lucas JW, Barr-Anderson DJ, Kington RS. Health status, health insurance, and health care utilization patterns of immigrant black men. Am J Public Health. 2003;93(10):1740–7.PubMedCrossRef
Subar AF, Dodd KW, Guenther PM, et al. The food propensity questionnaire: concept, development, and validation for use as a covariate in a model to estimate usual food intake. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006;106(10):1556–63.PubMedCrossRef
Kennedy S, McDonald JT, Biddle N. The healthy immigrant effect and immigrant selection: evidence from four countries. http://www-personal.buseco.monash.edu.au/~jaekim/seminar/tedpaper.pdf
. Accessed July 27, 2009.
African Immigrants in the United States are the Nation’s most highly educated group. J Blacks Higher Educ. 26 (Winter, 1999–2000):60–1.
Foreign-born black men in the United States hold a four-year college degree close to the percentage of white Americans. J Blacks Higher Educ. 2007;55(Spring):47–8.
Hayes RB, Ziegler RG, Gridley G, et al. Hoover dietary factors and risks for prostate cancer among blacks and whites in the United States. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 1999;8:25–34.
Odedina FT, Campbell E, Scrivens J, et al. Personal factors affecting African American men’s prostate cancer screening behavior. J Natl Med Assoc. 2008;100(6):724–33.PubMed
Kumar NB, Yu D, Akinremi TO, Odedina FT. Comparing dietary and other lifestyle factors among immigrant Nigerian men living in the US and indigenous men from Nigeria: potential implications for prostate cancer risk reduction. J Immigr Minor Health 2009;11(5):391–9. Epub 2009 Feb 19.
Cho Y, Frisbie WP, Hummer RA, Rogers RG. Nativity, duration of residence, and the health of Hispanic adults in the United States. Int Migr Rev. 2004;38:184–211.CrossRef
Hummer RA, Biegler M, DeTurk PB, Forbes D, et al. Race/ethnicity, nativity, and infant mortality in the United States. Soc Forces. 1999;77:1083–118.
Landale NS, Oropesa RS, Llanes D, Gorman BK. Does Americanization have adverse effects on health?: stress, health habits, and infant health outcomes among Puerto Ricans. Soc Forces. 1999;78:613–41.
Marmot MG, Syme S. Acculturation and coronary heart disease in Japanese American. Am J Epidemiol. 1976;104:225–47.PubMed