Journal of Happiness Studies

, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 163–185

Putting the ‘app’ in Happiness: A Randomised Controlled Trial of a Smartphone-Based Mindfulness Intervention to Enhance Wellbeing

  • Annika Howells
  • Itai Ivtzan
  • Francisco Jose Eiroa-Orosa
Research Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10902-014-9589-1

Cite this article as:
Howells, A., Ivtzan, I. & Eiroa-Orosa, F.J. J Happiness Stud (2016) 17: 163. doi:10.1007/s10902-014-9589-1

Abstract

Smartphones are revolutionizing approaches to wellbeing investment. Those seeking greater happiness can engage with thousands of downloadable self-help applications instantly, yet their effectiveness remains largely unknown. This investigation explored the viability of delivering a positive psychological intervention in application format to authentic happiness seekers. A smartphone-based randomized-controlled trial was conducted with a diverse self-selecting pool, randomly assigned to engage with an empirically supported mindfulness intervention (n = 57) or a control intervention (n = 64) for 10 days. The study explored smartphone methodology, the importance of empirically based content for wellbeing enhancement and the extent to which user experience related to wellbeing gains. Results of repeated measures ANOVAs showed statistically significant increases in positive affect with a medium effect size and reduced depressive symptoms with a small effect size, although no statistically significant differences in satisfaction with life, flourishing or negative affect were found. No statistically significant gains were observed in the control condition. Ratings of task enjoyment were positively correlated (Pearson’s r) with positive affect increase. Findings support the viability of smartphone-based interventions to significantly enhance elements of wellbeing, underscoring the importance of application content and the role of person-activity fit. This investigation presents implications for happiness seeking strategies in the real world whilst showcasing a dynamic method of intervention delivery that can benefit future research and practice. If the greatest mission of positive psychology is to enhance global flourishing, the potential of smartphone-based interventions may play a vital role.

Keywords

Happiness Mindfulness Wellbeing Positive psychological intervention Randomized controlled trial Smartphone application 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Annika Howells
    • 1
  • Itai Ivtzan
    • 1
  • Francisco Jose Eiroa-Orosa
    • 1
  1. 1.University of East LondonLondonUK