Article

Journal of Clinical Immunology

, Volume 29, Issue 1, pp 117-122

The Clinical Spectrum of Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (LAD) III due to Defective CalDAG-GEF1

  • Sara S. KilicAffiliated withDepartment of Pediatric Immunology, Uludag University School of Medicine
  • , Amos EtzioniAffiliated withMeyer Children’s Hospital, Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion Email author 

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Abstract

Introduction

Leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) type III is a rare syndrome characterized by severe recurrent infections, leukocytosis, and increased bleeding tendency. All integrins are normally expressed yet a defect in their activation leads to the observed clinical manifestations.

Materials and Methods

Less than 20 patients have been reported world wide and the primary genetic defect was identified in some of them. Here we describe the clinical features of patients in whom a mutation in the calcium and diacylglycerol-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 (CalDAG GEF1) was found and compare them to other cases of LAD III and to animal models harboring a mutation in the CalDAG GEF1 gene.

Discussion

The hallmarks of the syndrome are recurrent infections accompanied by severe bleeding episodes distinguished by osteopetrosis like bone abnormalities and neurodevelopmental defects.

Keywords

Leukocytes platelets integrins adhesion infections bleeding immunodeficiency