Quality of Work Life as a Mediator Between Emotional Labor and Work Family Interference
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
We adopted the conservation of resources model (COR, Hobfoll Am Psychol 44:513–524, 1989; Hobfoll in Stress, culture, and community: the psychology and philosophy of stress, Plenum, New York, 1998) to examine the associations among emotional labor, work family interference, and quality of work life.
Cross-sectional, self-reported data were obtained from 442 Hong Kong Chinese service employees.
Correlation and hierarchical regression analyses showed that surface acting was a salient correlate of work-to-family interference, even when organizational display rules and employees’ demographic information were controlled. Furthermore, quality of work life had partially mediated the relationship between surface acting and work-to-family interference. However, deep acting and expression of naturally felt emotion did not relate to work-to-family interference. Finally, we found that family-to-work interference was a salient correlate of the use of surface acting in workplace.
This study provided useful information of how adopting different emotional labor strategies related to work family interference. Based on our results, the use of deep acting should be promoted in workplace because it related positively to quality of work life and it did not amplify the work-to-family interference.
While past studies often explored the role of emotional labor as the precursor of work family interference, our study is among the first attempt to examine family-to-work interference as the antecedent of emotional labor. Additionally, we had also confirmed the role of quality of work life as an important mediator between emotional labor-work-to-family interference.
- Abraham, R. (1999). The impact of emotional dissonance on organizational commitment and intention to turnover. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 133, 41–455.
- Allen, T. D., Herst, D. E. L., Bruck, C. S., & Sutton, M. (2000). Consequences associated with work-to-family conflict: A review and agenda for future research. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5, 278–308. doi:10.1037/1076-8922.214.171.1248. CrossRef
- Ashforth, B., & Humphrey, R. H. (1993). Emotional labor in service roles: The influence of identity. Academy of Management Review, 18, 88–115. doi:10.2307/258824. CrossRef
- Bakker, A., & Heuven, E. (2006). Emotional dissonance, burnout, and in-role performance among nurses and police officers. International Journal of Stress Management, 13, 423–440. doi:10.1037/1072-5245.13.4.423. CrossRef
- Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182. doi:10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1993. CrossRef
- Beal, D. J., Trougakos, J. P., Weiss, H. M., & Green, S. G. (2006). Episodic processes in emotional labor: Perceptions of affective delivery and regulation strategies. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 1053–1065. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.91.5.1053. CrossRef
- Bono, J. E., & Vey, M. A. (2005). Toward understanding emotional management at work: A quantitative review of emotional labor research. In C. E. J. Hartel, W. J. Zerbe, & N. M. Ashkanasy (Eds.), Emotions in organizational behavior (pp. 213–234). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
- Bono, J. E., & Vey, M. A. (2007). Personality and emotional performance: Extraversion, neuroticism, and self-monitoring. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12, 177–192. doi:10.1037/1076-89188.8.131.52. CrossRef
- Brotheridge, C. M., & Lee, R. T. (1998). Development and validation of the emotional labor scale. Paper presented at the first conference on emotions in organizational life, San Diego, August, 1998.
- Brotheridge, C. M., & Lee, R. T. (2002). Testing a conservation of resources model of the dynamics of emotional labor. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 7, 57–67.
- Byron, K. (2005). A meta-analytic review of work-family conflict and its antecedents. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 67, 169–198. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2004.08.009. CrossRef
- Cheung, F. Y. L., & Tang, C. S. K. (2007). The influence of emotional dissonance and resources at work on job burnout among Chinese human service employees. International Journal of Stress Management, 14, 72–87. doi:10.1037/1072-5245.14.1.72. CrossRef
- Diefendorff, J. M., Croyle, M. H., & Gosserand, R. H. (2005). The dimensionality and antecedents of emotional labor strategies. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66, 330–359. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2004.02.001. CrossRef
- Diefendorff, J., & Gosserand, R. (2003). Understanding the emotional labor process: A control theory perspective. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24, 945–959. doi:10.1002/job.230. CrossRef
- Eby, L. T., Casper, W. J., Lockwood, A., Bordeaux, C., & Brinley, A. (2005). Work and family research in IO/OB: Context analysis and review of the literature (1980–2002). Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66, 124–197.
- Edwards, J. R., & Rothbard, N. P. (2000). Mechanisms linking working and family: Clarifying the relationship between work and family constructs. Academy of Management Review, 25, 178–199. doi:10.2307/259269. CrossRef
- Evans, P., & Bartolome, F. (1984). The changing pictures of the relationship between career and family. Journal of Occupational Behavior, 5, 9–21. doi:10.1002/job.4030050103. CrossRef
- Ford, M. T., Heinen, B. A., & Langkamer, K. L. (2007). Work and family satisfaction and conflict: A meta-analysis of cross-domain relations. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 57–80. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.92.1.57. CrossRef
- Goldberg, L. S., & Grandey, A. A. (2007). Display rules versus display autonomy: Emotional regulation, emotional exhaustion, and task performance in a call center simulation. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12, 301–318. doi:10.1037/1076-89184.108.40.2061. CrossRef
- Goldsmith, E. (1996). Resources management for individuals and families. St Paul, MN: West Publishing Company.
- Grandey, A. A. (2000). Emotional regulation in the workplace: A new way to conceptualize emotional labor. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5, 95–110. doi:10.1037/1076-89220.127.116.11. CrossRef
- Grandey, A. A. (2003). When “the show must go on”: Surface acting and deep acting as determinants of emotional exhaustion and peer-rated service delivery. Academy of Management Journal, 46, 86–96. CrossRef
- Grandey, A. A., & Cropanzano, R. (1999). The conservation of resources model applied to work-family conflict and strain. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 54, 350–370. doi:10.1006/jvbe.1998.1666. CrossRef
- Grandey, A. A., Fisk, G. M., & Steiner, D. D. (2005). Must “service with a smile” be stressful? The moderating role of personal control for American and French employees. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 893–904. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.90.5.893. CrossRef
- Greenhaus, J. H., & Beutell, N. J. (1985). Sources and conflict between work and family roles. Academy of Management Review, 10, 76–88. doi:10.2307/258214. CrossRef
- Gross, J. J. (1998). Antecedent-and response-focused emotion regulation: Divergent consequences for experience, expression, and physiology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 224–237. doi:10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.168. CrossRef
- Halbesleben, J. R. B. (2006). Sources of social support and burnout: A meta-analytic test of the conservation of resources model. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 1134–1145. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.91.5.1134. CrossRef
- Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. The American Psychologist, 44, 513–524. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.44.3.513. CrossRef
- Hobfoll, S. E. (1998). Stress, culture, and community: The psychology and philosophy of stress. New York: Plenum.
- Hochschild, A. R. (1983). The managed heart: Commercialization of human feeling. Berkeley: University of California Press.
- Joplin, J. R. W., Shaffer, M., Francesco, A. M., & Lau, T. (2003). The macro-environment and work-family conflict: Development of a cross cultural comparative framework. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 3, 305–328. doi:10.1177/1470595803003003004. CrossRef
- Judge, T. A., Ilies, R., & Scott, B. A. (2006). Work-family conflict and emotions: Effects at work and at home. Personnel Psychology, 59, 779–814. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2006.00054.x. CrossRef
- Kossek, E. E., & Ozeki, C. (1998). Work-family conflict, policies, and the job-life satisfaction relationship: A review and directions for organizational behavior-human resources research. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 139–149. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.83.2.139. CrossRef
- Lambert, E. G., Pasupuleti, S., Cluse-Tolar, T., Jennings, M., & Baker, D. (2006). The impact of work-family conflict on social work and human service worker job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Administration in Social Work, 30, 55–74. doi:10.1300/J147v30n03_05. CrossRef
- Montgomery, A. J., Panagopolou, E., & Benos, A. (2005). Emotional labor at work and at home among Greek health-care professionals. Journal of Health Organization and Management, 19, 395–408. doi:10.1108/14777260510615413. CrossRef
- Montgomery, A. J., Panagopolou, E., de Wildt, M., & Meenks, E. (2006). Work-family interference, emotional labor and burnout. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21, 36–51. doi:10.1108/02683940610643206. CrossRef
- Morris, J. A., & Feldman, D. C. (1996). The dimensions, antecedents, and consequences of emotional labor. Academy of Management Review, 21, 986–1010. doi:10.2307/259161. CrossRef
- Morris, J. A., & Feldman, D. C. (1997). Managing emotions in the workplace. Journal of Managerial Issues, 9, 257–274.
- Naring, G., Briet, M., & Brouwers, A. (2006). Beyond demand-control: Emotional labor and symptoms of burnout in teachers. Work and Stress, 20, 303–315. doi:10.1080/02678370601065182. CrossRef
- Netemeyer, R. G., Boles, J. S., & McMurrian, R. (1996). Development and validation of work-family conflict scales. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 400–410. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.81.4.400. CrossRef
- Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J.-Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 879–903. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879. CrossRef
- Rubin, R. S., Tardino, V. M. S., Daus, C. S., & Munz, D. C. (2005). A reconceptualization of the emotional labor construct: On the development of an integrated theory of perceived emotional dissonance and emotional labor. In C. E. J. Hartel, W. J. Zerbe, & N. M. Ashkanasy (Eds.), Emotions in organizational behavior (pp. 189–211). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
- Siegrist, J. (1996). Adverse health effects of high-effort/low reward conditions. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 1, 27–41. doi:10.1037/1076-8922.214.171.124. CrossRef
- Sirgy, M. J., Efraty, D., Siegel, P., & Lee, D. J. (2001). A new measure of quality of work life (QWL) based on need satisfaction and spillover theories. Social Indicators Research, 55, 241–302. doi:10.1023/A:1010986923468. CrossRef
- Totterdell, P., & Holman, D. (2003). Emotion regulation in customer service roles: Testing a model of emotional labor. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 8, 55–73. doi:10.1037/1076-89126.96.36.199. CrossRef
- Totterdell, P., & Parkinson, B. (1999). Use and effectiveness of self-regulation strategies for improving mood in a group of trainee teachers. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 4, 219–232. doi:10.1037/1076-89188.8.131.52. CrossRef
- Ulrich, D. N., & Dunne, H. P. (1986). To love and work: A systemic interlocking of family, workplace, and career. New York: Brunner/Mazel, Inc.
- van Gelderen, B., Heuven, E., van Veldhoven, M., Zeelenberg, M., & Croon, M. (2007). Psychological strain and emotional labor among police-officers: A diary study. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 71, 446–459. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2007.09.001. CrossRef
- Wharton, A. S., & Erickson, R. J. (1993). Managing emotions on the job and at home: Understanding the consequences of multiple emotional roles. Academy of Management Review, 18, 457–486. doi:10.2307/258905. CrossRef
- Williams, K. J., & Alliger, G. M. (1994). Role stressors, mood spillover, and perceptions of work-family conflict in employed parents. Academy of Management Journal, 37, 837–868. doi:10.2307/256602. CrossRef
- Yang, N., Chen, C. C., Choi, J., & Zou, Y. (2000). Sources of work-family conflict: A Sino-US comparison of the effects of work and family demands. Academy of Management Journal, 43, 113–123. doi:10.2307/1556390. CrossRef
- Zapf, D. (2002). Emotion work and psychological well-being: A review of the literature and some conceptual considerations. Human Resource Management Review, 12, 237–268. doi:10.1016/S1053-4822(02)00048-7. CrossRef
- Zapf, D., Seifert, C., Schmutte, B., Mertini, H., & Holz, M. (2001). Emotion work and job stressors and their effects on burnout. Psychology & Health, 16, 527–545. doi:10.1080/08870440108405525. CrossRef
- Zapf, D., Vogt, C., Seifert, C., Mertini, H., & Isic, A. (1999). Emotion work as a source of stress: The concept and development of an instrument. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 8, 371–400. doi:10.1080/135943299398230. CrossRef
- Quality of Work Life as a Mediator Between Emotional Labor and Work Family Interference
Journal of Business and Psychology
Volume 24, Issue 3 , pp 245-255
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer US
- Additional Links
- Emotional labor
- Work family interference
- Quality of work life
- Industry Sectors