Original Paper

Journal of Behavioral Education

, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 79-92

First online:

Comparing Brief and Extended Wait-Time During Small Group Instruction for Children with Challenging Behavior

  • Matt TincaniAffiliated withDepartment of Special Education, University of Nevada Email author 
  • , Shannon CrozierAffiliated withDepartment of Special Education, University of Nevada

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This preliminary study compared brief (1 s) and extended (4 s) wait-time on response opportunities, academic responses, accuracy, and disruptive behavior of two children with challenging behavior during small group instruction. Brief wait-time increased children’s response opportunities, academic responses, and accuracy in comparison to extended wait-time. Though variable, brief wait-time also decreased children’s disruptive behavior. Findings differ from previous research, which found performance improvements with extended wait-time for children with moderate to profound cognitive disabilities. Limitations of the study and future research suggestions are discussed.


Wait-time Teacher pacing Challenging behavior Effective instruction Behavioral disorders