, Volume 55, Issue 2, pp 219-223
Date: 20 Jan 2013

Solution structure of the Magnaporthe oryzae avirulence protein AvrPiz-t

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Biological context

Plants have evolved two major layers of defense mechanisms against invasion by diverse pathogens. When host membranes are exposed to pathogens, plants use extracellular surface receptors to identify pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and initiate so-called PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) (Chisholm et al. 2006). Once pathogens gain hold in plants by suppressing this primary defense, plants express cytoplasmic resistance proteins that recognize pathogen-derived effector proteins and mount a more specialized defense mechanism referred to as effector-triggered immunity (ETI, Chisholm et al. 2006). To enable parasitism, pathogens usually use an arsenal of effector proteins that are delivered into plant cells to exert their primary function of interfering with the host immunity (Abramovitch et al. 2006; Feng et al. 2012; Wilton et al. 2010). However, effector proteins in some cases act as traitors by inducing effector-triggered immunity; these proteins are often r ...

Zhi-Min Zhang and Xu Zhang contributed equally to the present work.