The comparative influences of structural ordering, grain size, Li-content, and bulk density on the Li+-conductivity of Li0.29La0.57TiO3
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- Sutorik, A.C., Green, M.D., Cooper, C. et al. J Mater Sci (2012) 47: 6992. doi:10.1007/s10853-012-6650-5
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The lattice and total Li+-ionic conductivity of Li0.29La0.57TiO3 ceramic (LLTO) sintered at 1200 °C were determined as functions of powder calcination temperature and sintering duration, and these results were correlated with the relative degrees of Li+-ordering, Li-content, grain size, and bulk density to assess the relative impact of these parameters on material performance. Under all conditions, LLTO formed with a high degree of tetragonal superstructure to its perovskite related framework, and the lattice conductivity closely followed the relative amounts of the superstructure, as evaluated via determination of the sample ordering parameter from X-ray diffraction data. LLTO powders that were calcined at 900 °C for 1 h and sintered at 1200 °C for 6 h gave lattice conductivity values (~1.14 × 10−3 S cm−1) comparable within the highest ranges reported in the literature. This coincided with the lowest degree of tetragonal superstructure formation, and it was also found to be largely independent of the values of Li-content measured on sintered ceramic despite significant Li2O volatilization at longer sintering times (up to 23 % after 12 h at 1200 °C). Samples of LLTO powder that were calcined at 1100 °C and sintered at 1200 °C for 12 h resulted in the highest total Li-ion conductivity value ~6.30 × 10−5 S cm−1. The total conductivity of LLTO varied inversely with grain size when the grains were <20 μm but was insensitive to that parameter above that size threshold. The strongest influence on total conductivity was primarily the bulk ceramic density. It was estimated from measured values that as the bulk ceramic density approached the full theoretical value for LLTO the total conductivity could near the lattice conductivity of ~1.2 × 10−3 S cm−1.