Journal of Intelligent Information Systems

, Volume 41, Issue 3, pp 407–434

Automatic music transcription: challenges and future directions

  • Emmanouil Benetos
  • Simon Dixon
  • Dimitrios Giannoulis
  • Holger Kirchhoff
  • Anssi Klapuri
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10844-013-0258-3

Cite this article as:
Benetos, E., Dixon, S., Giannoulis, D. et al. J Intell Inf Syst (2013) 41: 407. doi:10.1007/s10844-013-0258-3

Abstract

Automatic music transcription is considered by many to be a key enabling technology in music signal processing. However, the performance of transcription systems is still significantly below that of a human expert, and accuracies reported in recent years seem to have reached a limit, although the field is still very active. In this paper we analyse limitations of current methods and identify promising directions for future research. Current transcription methods use general purpose models which are unable to capture the rich diversity found in music signals. One way to overcome the limited performance of transcription systems is to tailor algorithms to specific use-cases. Semi-automatic approaches are another way of achieving a more reliable transcription. Also, the wealth of musical scores and corresponding audio data now available are a rich potential source of training data, via forced alignment of audio to scores, but large scale utilisation of such data has yet to be attempted. Other promising approaches include the integration of information from multiple algorithms and different musical aspects.

Keywords

Music signal analysis Music information retrieval Automatic music transcription 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emmanouil Benetos
    • 1
  • Simon Dixon
    • 2
  • Dimitrios Giannoulis
    • 2
  • Holger Kirchhoff
    • 2
  • Anssi Klapuri
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceCity University LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Centre for Digital MusicQueen Mary University of LondonLondonUK
  3. 3.Ovelin Ltd.HelsinkiFinland
  4. 4.Tampere University of TechnologyTampereFinland

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