, Volume 10, Issue 4, pp 405-413
Date: 19 Jun 2009

Should vocational education be part of secondary education?

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Introduction

Secondary education has become increasingly important in education policy reforms around the world. Many countries would like to see all their young people complete upper secondary education as a basic educational requirement. Secondary education policies vary internationally regarding the role of vocational and technical education. In Germany, Switzerland and Austria, for example, most students in upper secondary education attend vocational programs, which are mainly conducted in enterprises (dual system). In some other countries, such as the United States, New Zealand or Japan, most of students at upper secondary level study in general education programs.

There is a global debate whether vocational education should be part of school based upper secondary education. Some insist that vocational and technical education is better placed in post-secondary education or at secondary level in the private sector. Two scholars, Manfred Wallenborn and Stephen Heyneman, debate this is