Date: 02 Aug 2013
Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Externalizing Problems: Moderating Effects of Emotionally Maltreating Parenting Behaviors
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
While prior research has examined the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and child externalizing behaviors, little research has focused specifically on the moderating effects of observed parenting behaviors on this relationship. This study was conducted to investigate the role of emotionally maltreating parenting behaviors, which were hypothesized to exacerbate the strength of the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and child behavior problems. Maternal depressive symptoms, child externalizing problems, and emotionally maltreating parenting behaviors were assessed in a community sample of 62 mother–child dyads (with children age 8–11 years). Results indicated the overall model was significant, after controlling for maternal race, as was the interaction between maternal depressive symptoms and emotionally maltreating parenting behaviors. Based on these findings, future research is needed to identify potential protective factors that may prevent depressive symptoms from negatively affecting parenting behaviors, with the attendant goal of decreasing risk for emotional maltreatment.
Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist and 1991 profile. Burlington, VT: University of VT, Department of Psychiatry.
Barber, B. K., Stolz, H. E., & Olsen, J. A. (2005). Parental support, psychological control and behavioral control: Assessing relevance across time, culture, and method. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 70, 1–137.PubMed
Barrera, M., Prelow, H. M., Dumka, L. E., Gonzales, N. A., Knight, G. P., Michaels, M. L., et al. (2002). Pathways from family economic conditions to adolescents’ distress: Supportive parenting stressors outside the family, and deviant peers. Journal of Community Psychology, 30(2), 135–152.CrossRef
Breslau, N., Davis, G., & Prabucki, K. (1998). Depressed mothers as informants in family research—Are they accurate? Psychiatry Research, 24, 345–359.CrossRef
Burnam, M. A., Stein, J. A., Golding, J. M., Siegel, J. M., Sorenson, S. B., Forsythe, A. B., et al. (1988). Sexual assault and mental disorders in a community population. Journal of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, 56, 843–850.CrossRef
Casas, J. F., Weigel, S. M., Crick, N. R., Ostrov, J. M., Woods, K. E., Jansen Yeh, E. A., et al. (2006). Early parenting and children’s relational and physical aggression in the preschool and home contexts. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 27, 209–227.CrossRef
Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. A. (1996). Equifinality and multifinality in developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 597–600.CrossRef
Cohn, J. F., Campbell, S. B., Matias, R., & Hopkins, J. (1990). Face-to-face interactions of postpartum depressed and nondepressed mother-infant pairs at 2 months. Developmental Psychology, 26, 15–23.CrossRef
Compas, B. E., Forehand, R., Keller, G., Champion, J. E., Rakow, A., Reeslund, K., et al. (2009). Randomized controlled trial of a family cognitive-behavioral preventive intervention for children of depressed parents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77, 1007–1020.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
Conger, R. D., & Elder, G. H. (1994). Families in troubled times: Adapting to change in rural America. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
Dahl, R. E. (2004). Adolescent brain development: A period of vulnerabilities and opportunities. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 102, 1–22.CrossRef
Derogatis, L. R. (1983). SCL-90-R administration, scoring, & procedures. Manual II. Towson, MD: Clinical Psychometric Research.
Egeland, B., & Erickson, M. F. (1987). Psychologically unavailable caregiving: The effects on development of young children and the implications for intervention. In M. Brassard, B. Germain, & S. Hart (Eds.), Psychological maltreatment of children and youth (pp. 110–120). New York: Pergamon.
Goodman, S. H., & Brumley, H. E. (1990). Schizophrenic and depressed mothers: Relational deficits in parenting. Developmental Psychology, 26, 31–39.CrossRef
Goodman, S. H., & Gotlib, I. H. (2002) (Eds.), Children of depressed parents: Alternative pathways to risk for psychopathology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Gordon, D., Burge, D., Hammen, C., Adrian, C., Jaenicke, C., & Hiroto, D. (1989). Observations of interactions of depressed women with their children. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 50–55.PubMed
Gross, H. E., Shaw, D. S., & Moilanen, K. L. (2008). Reciprocal associations between boys’ externalizing problems and mothers’ depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 36, 693–709.
Harnish, J. D., Dodge, K. A., & Valente, E. (1995). Mother–child interaction quality as a partial mediator of the roles of maternal depressive symptomatology and socioeconomic status in the development of child behavior problems. Child Development, 66, 739–753.PubMed
Herrick, H. (2002). Postpartum depression: Who gets help? Raleigh, NC: Department of Health and Human Services State Center for Health Statistics, Statistical Brief 24.
Hops, H., Sherman, L., & Biglan, A. (1990). Maternal depression, marital discord, and children’s behavior: A developmental perspective. In G. R. Patterson (Ed.), Depression and aggression in family interaction (pp. 185–208). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Jaffee, S. R., & Poulton, R. (2006). Reciprocal effects of mothers’ depression and children’s problem behaviors from middle childhood to early adolescence. In A. C. Huston & M. N. Ripke (Eds.), Developmental contexts in middle childhood: Bridges to adolescence and adulthood (pp. 107–129). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRef
Kemper, K. J., & Babonis, T. R. (1992). Screening for maternal depression in pediatric clinics. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 146, 876–878.PubMed
Lee, C. M., & Gotlib, I. H. (1991). Maternal depression and child adjustment: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 98, 78–85.CrossRef
Loukas, A., Paulos, S. K., & Robinson, S. (2005). Early adolescent social and physical aggression: Examining the roles of social anxiety and maternal psychological control. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34, 335–345.CrossRef
Nelson, J. A., Leerkes, E. M., O’Brien, M., Calkins, S. D., & Marcovitch, S. (2012). African American and European American mothers’ beliefs about negative emotions and emotion socialization practices. Parenting: Science and Practice, 12, 22–41.CrossRef
NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (1999). Chronicity of maternal depressive symptoms, maternal sensitivity, and child functioning at 36 months. Developmental Psychology, 35, 1297–1310.CrossRef
Orr, S. T., James, S. A., Burns, B. J., & Thompson, B. (1989). Chronic stressors and maternal depression: Implications for prevention. American Journal of Public Health, 79, 295–1296.CrossRef
Patterson, G., Reid, J., & Dishion, T. (1992). Antisocial boys. Eugene, OR: Castalia Publishing.
Sabatelli, R. M., & Mazor, A. (1985). Differentiation, individuation, and identity formation: The integration of family system and individual developmental perspectives. Adolescence, 20, 619–633.PubMed
Weissman, M. M., Paykel, E. S., & Klerman, G. L. (1972). The depressed woman as a mother. Social Psychiatry, 7, 98–108.CrossRef
- Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Externalizing Problems: Moderating Effects of Emotionally Maltreating Parenting Behaviors
Journal of Child and Family Studies
Volume 23, Issue 2 , pp 389-398
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer US
- Additional Links
- Emotional maltreatment
- Maternal depressive symptoms
- Externalizing problems