Can Bronchoscopic Airway Anatomy Be an Indicator of Autism?
- Barbara A. StewartAffiliated withPediatric Pulmonary Department, Children’s Health Center, St. Joseph’s Hospital and Medical Center Email author
- , Amar J. S. KlarAffiliated withGene Regulation and Chromosome Biology Laboratory, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, National Institutes of Health
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Bronchoscopic evaluations revealed that some children have double branching of bronchi (designated “doublets”) in the lower lungs airways, rather than normal, single branching. Retrospective analyses revealed only one commonality in them: all subjects with doublets also had autism or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). That is, 49 subjects exhibited the presence of initial normal anatomy in upper airway followed by doublets in the lower airway. In contrast, the normal branching pattern was noted in all the remaining 410 subjects who did not have a diagnosis of autism/ASD. We propose that the presence of doublets might be an objective, reliable, and valid biologic marker of autism/ASD.
KeywordsAutism Autism spectrum disorder etiology Doublets Airway double branching Airway anomaly
- Can Bronchoscopic Airway Anatomy Be an Indicator of Autism?
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Volume 43, Issue 4 , pp 911-916
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer US
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- Autism spectrum disorder etiology
- Airway double branching
- Airway anomaly
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- Author Affiliations
- 1. Pediatric Pulmonary Department, Children’s Health Center, St. Joseph’s Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, 85013, USA
- 3. 3068 Marcus Pointe Blvd., Pensacola, FL, 32505, USA
- 2. Gene Regulation and Chromosome Biology Laboratory, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD, 21702, USA