Original Paper

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 42, Issue 9, pp 1928-1938

Maternal and Paternal Age are Jointly Associated with Childhood Autism in Jamaica

  • Mohammad H. RahbarAffiliated withDivision of Epidemiology, Human Genetics, and Environmental Sciences (EHGES), School of Public Health, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth)Biostatistics/Epidemiology/Research Design (BERD) Core, Center for Clinical and Translational Sciences (CCTS), The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) Email author 
  • , Maureen Samms-VaughanAffiliated withDepartment of Child Health, The University of the West Indies (UWI)
  • , Katherine A. LovelandAffiliated withDepartment of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, UTHealth Medical School, UTHealthDepartment of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Changing Lives through Autism Spectrum Services (C.L.A.S.S.) Clinic, UTHealthCenter of Excellence on Development and Psychopathology, UTHealth
  • , Deborah A. PearsonAffiliated withDivision of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, UTHealth Medical School, UTHealth
  • , Jan BresslerAffiliated withHuman Genetics Center, School of Public Health, UTHealth
  • , Zhongxue ChenAffiliated withBiostatistics/Epidemiology/Research Design Core, Center for Clinical and Translational Sciences, UTHealth
  • , Manouchehr Ardjomand-HessabiAffiliated withBiostatistics/Epidemiology/Research Design Core, Center for Clinical and Translational Sciences, UTHealth
  • , Sydonnie Shakespeare-PellingtonAffiliated withDepartment of Child Health, The University of the West Indies (UWI)
  • , Megan L. GroveAffiliated withHuman Genetics Center, School of Public Health, UTHealth
    • , Compton BeecherAffiliated withDivision of Epidemiology, Human Genetics, and Environmental Sciences (EHGES), School of Public Health, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth)Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Caribbean Genetics, The University of the West Indies
    • , Kari BloomAffiliated withBiostatistics/Epidemiology/Research Design Core, Center for Clinical and Translational Sciences, UTHealth
    • , Eric BoerwinkleAffiliated withDivision of Epidemiology, Human Genetics, and Environmental Sciences (EHGES), School of Public Health, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth)Human Genetics Center, School of Public Health, UTHealthDivision of Epidemiology, Human Genetics, and Environmental Sciences, School of Public Health, UTHealth

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access

Abstract

Several studies have reported maternal and paternal age as risk factors for having a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), yet the results remain inconsistent. We used data for 68 age- and sex-matched case–control pairs collected from Jamaica. Using Multivariate General Linear Models (MGLM) and controlling for parity, gestational age, and parental education, we found a significant (p < 0.0001) joint effect of parental ages on having children with ASD indicating an adjusted mean paternal age difference between cases and controls of [5.9 years; 95% CI (2.6, 9.1)] and a difference for maternal age of [6.5 years; 95% CI (4.0, 8.9)]. To avoid multicollinearity in logistic regression, we recommend joint modeling of parental ages as a vector of outcome variables using MGLM.

Keywords

Autism spectrum disorders Maternal age Paternal age Multivariate General Linear Models Multicollinearity