Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 42, Issue 2, pp 301–306

Brief Report: Female-To-Male Transsexual People and Autistic Traits


    • Autism Research Centre, Psychiatry DepartmentCambridge University
    • Department of NeuroscienceWeill Cornell Graduate School of Medical Sciences
  • Sally Wheelwright
    • Autism Research Centre, Psychiatry DepartmentCambridge University
  • Krista Farrell
    • Addenbrooke’s HospitalCambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
  • Emma Martin
    • Gender Identity Support and Research DivisionLima House Group
  • Richard Green
    • Imperial College
  • Domenico Di Ceglie
    • Gender Identity Development ServiceTavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust
  • Simon Baron-Cohen
    • Autism Research Centre, Psychiatry DepartmentCambridge University
Brief Report

DOI: 10.1007/s10803-011-1227-8

Cite this article as:
Jones, R.M., Wheelwright, S., Farrell, K. et al. J Autism Dev Disord (2012) 42: 301. doi:10.1007/s10803-011-1227-8


The ‘extreme male brain’ theory suggests females with Autism Spectrum Conditions are hyper-masculinized in certain aspects of behavior. We predicted that females with Gender Identity Disorder (who are masculinized) would have elevated Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) scores. AQ scores from five groups were compared: (1) n = 61 transmen (female-to-male transsexual people); (2) n = 198 transwomen (male-to-female transsexual people); (3) n = 76 typical males; (4) n = 98 typical females; and (5) n = 125 individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS). Transmen had a higher mean AQ than typical females, typical males and transwomen, but lower than individuals with AS. Transmen have more autistic traits and may have had difficulty socializing with female peers and thus found it easier to identify with male peer groups.


Autism Spectrum ConditionsGender Identity DisorderAutism Spectrum Quotient (AQ)Co-occurrence

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011