Date: 27 Dec 2006
Visual Fixation Patterns during Reciprocal Social Interaction Distinguish a Subgroup of 6-Month-Old Infants At-Risk for Autism from Comparison Infants
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Thirty-one infant siblings of children with autism and 24 comparison infants were tested at 6 months of age during social interaction with a caregiver, using a modified Still Face paradigm conducted via a closed-circuit TV-video system. In the Still Face paradigm, the mother interacts with the infant, then freezes and displays a neutral, expressionless face, then resumes interaction. Eye tracking data on infant visual fixation patterns were recorded during the three episodes of the experiment. Using a hierarchical cluster analysis, we identified a subgroup of infants demonstrating diminished gaze to the mother’s eyes relative to her mouth during the Still Face episode. Ten out of the 11 infants in this subgroup had an older sibling with autism.
Aldenderfer, M. S., & Blashfield, R. K. (1984). Cluster analysis (Sage University Paper series on Quantative Applications in the Social Sciences, No. 07-044). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edn., text revision (DSM-IV-TR). Washington DC.
Dalton, K. M., Nacewicz, B. M., Johnstone, T., Schaefer, H. S., Gernsbacher, M. A., & Goldsmith, H. H., et al. (2005). Gaze fixation and the neural circuitry of face processing in autism. Nature Neuroscience, 8(4), 519–526.PubMed
Dawson, G., Osterling, J., Meltzoff, A. N., & Kuhl, P. (2000). Case study of the development of an infant with autism from birth to two years of age. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 21(3), 299–313.CrossRef
Dawson, G., Webb, S. J., Wijsman, E., Schellenberg, G., Estes, A., & Munson, J., et al. (2005). Neurocognitive and electrophysiological evidence of altered face processing in parents of children with autism: Implications for a model of abnormal development of social brain circuitry in autism. Development and Psychopathology, 17(3), 679–697.PubMedCrossRef
Dorris, L., Espie, C. A. E., Knott, F., & Salt, J. (2004). Mind-reading difficulties in the siblings of people with Asperger’s syndrome: Evidence for a genetic influence in the abnormal development of a specific cognitive domain. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(2), 412–418.PubMedCrossRef
Hobson, R. P., Ouston, J., & Lee, A. (1988). What’s in a face? The case of autism. British Journal of Psychology, 79(4), 441–453.PubMed
Hunnius, S., & Geuze, R. H. (2004). Developmental changes in visual scanning of dynamic faces and abstract stimuli in infants: A longitudinal study. Infancy, 6(2), 231–255.CrossRef
Jemel, B., Mottron, L., & Dawson, M. (2006). Impaired face processing in autism: Fact or artifact? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder, 1–16.
Lansing, C. R., & McConkie, G. W. (2003). Word identification and eye fixation locations in visual and visual-plus-auditory presentations of spoken sentences. Perception & Psychophysics, 65(4), 536–552.
Pascalis, O., Deschonen, S., Morton, J., Deruelle, C., & Fabregrenet, M. (1995). Mothers face recognition by neonates – a replication and an extension. Infant Behavior & Development, 18(1), 79–85.CrossRef
Ritvo, E. R., Jorde, L. B., Mason-Brothers, A., Freeman, B. J., & et al. (1990). The UCLA-University of Utah epidemiologic survey of autism: Recurrence risk estimates and genetic counseling. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146(8), 1032–1036.
Sasson, N. J. (2006). The development of face processing in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(3), 381–394.CrossRef
Schultz, R. T., Grelotti, D. J., Klin, A., Kleinman, J., Van der Gaag, C., & Marois, R., et al. (2003). The role of the fusiform face area in social cognition: Implications for the pathobiology of autism. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 358(1430), 415–427.PubMedCrossRef
Sumi, S., Taniai, H., Miyachi, T., & Tanemura, M. (2006). Sibling risk of pervasive developmental disorder estimated by means of an epidemiologic survey in Nagoya, Japan. Journal of Human Genetics.
Tarabulsy, G. M., Provost, M. A., Deslandes, J., St-Laurent, D., Moss, E., & Lemelin, J.-P., et al. (2003). Individual differences in infant still-face response at 6 months. Infant Behavior & Development, 26(3), 421–438.CrossRef
Toda, S., & Fogel, A. (1993). Infant response to the still-face situation at 3 and 6 months. Developmental Psychology, 29(3), 532–538.CrossRef
Yarbus, A. L. (1961). Eye movements during the examination of complicated objects. Biofizika, 6(2), 52–56.PubMed
Zwaigenbaum, L., Bryson, S. E., Brian, J., Roberts, W., & Szatmari, P. (2005). Developmental spectrum among infant siblings of children with autism. Paper presented at the Society for Research in Child Development, Atlanta, Georgia.
- Visual Fixation Patterns during Reciprocal Social Interaction Distinguish a Subgroup of 6-Month-Old Infants At-Risk for Autism from Comparison Infants
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Volume 37, Issue 1 , pp 108-121
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- Still Face paradigm
- Visual fixation patterns
- Eye–Mouth Index (EMI)
- Face perception
- High-risk infants
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Neuroscience Graduate Group and School of Medicine, Class 2008, University of California, Davis, CA, USA
- 2. Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USA
- 3. M.I.N.D. Institute, University of CA, Davis Medical Center, 2825 50th St., Sacramento, CA, 95817, USA