A golden age of gelata: past and future research on planktonic ctenophores and cnidarians Article DOI:
Cite this article as: Haddock, S.H.D. Hydrobiologia (2004) 530: 549. doi:10.1007/s10750-004-2653-9 Abstract
The study of the natural history of gelatinous zooplankton (‘gelata’) reached a high point at the end of the 19th century, when scientists first began to understand the phylogenetic and ecological links between cnidarians and ctenophores. Siphonophores, carefully figured in their entirety, and gauze-like lobate ctenophores too fragile to touch, were described by the dozens. In the ensuing years, focus on zooplankton shifted toward more ‘industrial’ goals such as quantitative sampling using plankton nets. While plankton scientists were busy summing tattered parts, they lost sight of the whole jellies themselves, and a crustaceocentric view of the ocean came to dominate. During this period, the most dramatic breakthroughs in cnidarian research came from laboratory studies of neurobiology, physiology, and development, particularly of certain model organisms. Now, at the turn of this century, we have the opportunity to bring gelata back into primacy. Submersibles and remotely operated vehicles allow us to study entire life histories of organisms that we did not even know existed. The tools of molecular biology allow us to answer questions about development, evolution, and phylogeny that had reached a stalemate. Even in the surface waters, where it might be thought that there is little left to learn,
in situ observations have revealed unexpected interactions and hidden diversity. The critical roles that these organisms play in the health of the oceans, their position at the crux of many evolutionary debates, and the tools for biotechnology that they provide, have led to resurgent public appreciation and awareness. Although advanced tools do not necessitate good science, we have few excuses for failing to bring about another golden age of gelata. Keywords siphonophore jellyfish bioluminescence biodiversity blue-water diving submersible
A plenary address of the 7th International Conference on Coelenterate Biology.
References Alldredge, A. L. 1984The quantitative significance of gelatinous zooplankton as pelagic consumers In Fasham M. J. R. (ed.), Flows of Energy and Materials in Marine Ecosystems. Plenum, New York: 407–433 Google Scholar Alldredge, A. L., Silver, M. W. 1988 Characteristics, dynamics and significance of marine snow Progress in Oceanography 20 41 82 CrossRef Google Scholar Bieri, R. 1966 Feeding preferences and rates of the snail, Ianthina prolongata, the barnacle, Lepas anserifera, the nudibranchs Glaucus atlanticum and Fiona pinnata, and the food web in the marine neuston Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory 14 161 170 Google Scholar Ceccaldi, H. J. 1972 Observations biologiques de Cestus veneris Tethys 4 707 710 Google Scholar Chun, C. 1880Die Ctenophoren des Golfes von Neapel, Vol 1. Wilhelm Engelmann Leipzig Google Scholar Collins, A. G. 2002 Phylogeny of Medusozoa and the evolution of cnidarian life cycles Journal of Evolutionary Biology 15 418 432 CrossRef Google Scholar Delong, E. F., Franks, D. G., Alldredge, A. L. 1993 Phylogenetic diversity of aggregate-attached versus free-living marine bacterial assemblages Limnology and Oceanography 38 924 934 CrossRef Google Scholar Dennis, C. 2003 Close encounters of the jelly kind Nature 426 12 14 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar Gasca, R., Haddock, S. H. D. 2004 Associations between gelatinous zooplankton and hyperiid amphipods (Crustacea: Peracarida) in the Gulf of California Hydrobiologia 530/531: (Dev. Hydrobiol. 178) 529 535 CrossRef Google Scholar Gosse, P. H. 1853A Naturalist’s Rambles on the Devonshire Coast John van Voorst London Google Scholar Greve, W. 1970 Cultivation experiments on North Sea ctenophores Helgoländer Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen 20 304 307 CrossRef Google Scholar Haddock, S. H. D., Case, J. F. 1999 Bioluminescence spectra of shallow and deep-sea gelatinous zooplankton: ctenophores, medusae and siphonophores Marine Biology 133 571 582 CrossRef Google Scholar Haeckel, E. 1887 Report on the Radiolaria collected by the H. M S. Challenger during the years 1873–1876. Report on the scientific results of the voyage of the H. M. S. Challenger. Zoology 18 1 1803 Google Scholar Haeckel, E. 1888 Report on the Siphonophorae collected by H M. S. Challenger during the years 1873–1876. Report on the scientific results of the voyage of the H. M. S. Challenger. Zoology 28 1 380 Google Scholar Haeckel, E. 1904Kuntsformen der Natur Bibliographisches Institut Leipzig and Vienna Google Scholar Hamner, W. M. 1975 Underwater observations of blue-water plankton: logistics, techniques, and safety procedures for divers at sea Limnology and Oceanography 20 1045 1051 Google Scholar Hamner, W. M., Robison, B. H. 1992 In situ observations of giant appendicularians in Monterey Bay Deep Sea Research 39 1299 1313 CrossRef Google Scholar Hamner, W. M., Madin, L. P., Alldredge, A. L., Gilmer, R. W., Hamner, P. P. 1975 Underwater observations of gelatinous zooplankton: sampling problems, feeding biology, and behavior Limnology and Oceanography 20 907 917 CrossRef Google Scholar Harbison, G. R. 1992 The gelatinous inhabitants of the ocean interior Oceanus 35 18 23 Google Scholar Harbison, G. R., Biggs, D. C., Madin, L. P. 1977 The associations of Amphipoda Hyperiidea with gelatinous zooplankton II. Associations with Cnidaria, Ctenophora and Radiolaria. Deep-Sea Research 24 465 488 Google Scholar Harbison, G. R., Madin, L. P., Swanberg, N. R. 1978 On the natural history and distribution of oceanic ctenophores Deep-Sea Research 25 233 256 CrossRef Google Scholar Harbison, G. R., Matsumoto, G. I., Robison, B. H. 2001 Lampocteis cruentiventer gen nov., sp nov: a new mesopelagic lobate ctenophore, representing the type of a new family (Class Tentaculata, Order Lobata, Family Lampoctenidae, fam, nov.). Bulletin of Marine Science 68 299 311 Google Scholar Huxley, T. H. 1856 On natural history, as knowledge, discipline, and power Proceedings of the Royal Institution. Scientific Memoirs 1 305 314 Google Scholar Lindsay, D. J., Hunt, J. C., Hashimoto, J., Fujiwara, Y., Fujikura, K., Miyake, H., Tsuchida, S. 2000 Submersible observations on the deep-sea fauna of the south-west Indian Ocean: preliminary results for the mesopelagic and near-bottom communities JAMSTEC Journal of Deep Sea Research 16 23 33 Google Scholar Lindsay, D. J., Hunt, J. C., Hayashi, K. 2001 Associations in the␣midwater zone: the penaeid shrimp Funchalia sagamiensis Fujino 1975 and pelagic tunicates (Order: Pyrosomatida) Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology 34 157 170 CrossRef Google Scholar Madin, L. P., Harbison, G. R. 1978a Bathocyroë fosteri gen nov., sp. nov.: a mesopelagic ctenophore observed and collected from a submersible. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 58 559 564 Google Scholar Madin, L. P., Harbison, G. R. 1978b Thalassocalyce inconstans, new genus and species, an enigmatic ctenophore representing a new family and order Bulletin of Marine Science 28 680 687 Google Scholar
Mechnikov, I., 1874. Studien u«ber die Entwickelung der Medusen und Siphonophoren. Z. Wiss. Zool.
Mills, C. E. 1998Phylum Ctenophora: list of all valid species names Electronic internet document available at http://faculty.washington.edu/cemills/Ctenolist.html. Published by the author web page established March 1998, last updated November 2003 Google Scholar Mills, C. E. 2001 Jellyfish blooms: are populations increasing globally in response to changing ocean conditions Hydrobiologia 451 55 68 CrossRef Google Scholar Moss, A. G., Tamm, S. L. 1986 Electrophysiological control of ciliary motor responses in the ctenophore Pleurobrachia Journal of Comparative Physiology A 158 311 330 CrossRef Google Scholar Podar, M., Haddock, S. H. D., Sogin, M., Harbison, G. R. 2001 Molecular phylogenetic framework for the phylum Ctenophora based on 18s rRNA sequences Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 21 218 230 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar Pugh, P. R. 1989 Gelatinous zooplankton–the forgotten fauna Progress in Underwater Science 14 67 78 Google Scholar Pugh, P. R., Harbison, G. R. 1987 Three new species of prayine siphonphore (Calycophorae, Prayidae) collected by a submersible, with notes on related species Bulletin of Marine Science 41 68 91 Google Scholar Purcell, J. E. 1991 A review of cnidarians and ctenophores feeding on competitors in the plankton Hydrobiologia 216 335 342 CrossRef Google Scholar Raskoff, K. A. 2002 Foraging, prey capture, and gut contents of the mesopelagic narcomedusa Solmissus spp (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa). Marine Biology 141 1099 1107 Google Scholar Seibel, B. A., Thuesen, E. V., Childress, J. J., Gorodezky, L. A. 1997 Decline in pelagic cephalopod metabolism with habitat depth reflects differences in locomotory efficiency Biological Bulletin 192 262 278 CrossRef Google Scholar Silver, M. W., Shanks, A. L., Trent, J. D. 1978 Marine snow: microplankton habitat and source of small-scale␣patchiness in pelagic populations Science 201 371 373 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar Thuesen, E. V., Childress, J. J. 1994 Oxygen consumption rates and metabolic enzyme activities of oceanic California medusae in relation to body size and habitat depth Biological Bulletin 187 84 98 CrossRef Google Scholar Totton, A. K. 1965A Synopsis of the Siphonophora British Museum London Google Scholar Vinogradov, M. Y. 1989 A newly acclimated species in the Black Sea: the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi (Ctenophora: Lobata) Oceanology 29 220 224 Google Scholar
Widder, E. A., S. Bernstein, D. F. Bracher, J. F. Case, P. Hiller-Adams , K. R. Reisenbichler, J. J. Torres & B. H. Robison,␣1989. Bioluminescence in the Monterey Submarine Canyon: image analysis of video recordings from a midwater submersible. Marine Biology 100: 541–551.
Winsor, M. P. 1972 A historical consideration of the siphonophores Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Section B 73 315 323 Google Scholar Wood, J. G. 1890Out of Doors, a Selection of Original Articles on Practical Natural History Longmans Green and Co., London Google Scholar Youngbluth, M. J. 1984Manned submersibles and sophisticated instrumentation: tools for oceanographic research SUBTECH ‘83 Proceedings: Society for Underwater Technology London: 335–344 Google Scholar Copyright information
© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004