American Health Decisions. (1997). Executive summary. The quest to die with dignity: An analysis of Americans’ values, opinions, and attitudes concerning end
-care. A Report to the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation prepared for American Health Decisions
. Retrieved from http://www.ahd.org/The_Quest_to_Die_With_Dignity.html
Asch, D., Hansen-Flaschen, J., & Lanken, P. (1999). Decisions to limit or continue life-sustaining treatment by U.S. critical care physicians: Conflicts between physicians’ practices and patients’ wishes. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine,
Asselin v. Shawnee Mission Medical Center, 894 F. Supp. 1479 (D. Kansas 1995).
Baker, R. (1995). The 1988 DNR reforms: A comparative study of the impact of the New York DNR law and the JCAHO accreditation requirements. In R. Baker, M. A. Strosberg, & J. Bynum (Eds.), Legislating medical ethics: A study of the New York State do-not-resuscitate law
(pp. 263–302). Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic.CrossRef
Battin, M. P. (1983). The least worst death. Hastings Center Report,
Baumrucker, S. J. (2001). AND versus DNR. American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care,
Beach, M. C., & Morrison, R. S. (2002). The effect of do-not-resuscitate order on physician decision-making. Journal of the American Geriatric Society,
Berger, J. T. (2003). Ethical challenges of partial do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders. Archives of Internal Medicine,
Bishop, J. P., Brothers, K. B., Perry, J. E., & Ahmad, A. (2010). Reviving the conversation around CPR/DNR. The American Journal of Bioethics,
Blanchette, I., & Richards, A. (2003). Anxiety and the interpretation of ambiguous information: Beyond the emotional congruent effect. Journal of Exploratory Psychology,
Burns, J., Edwards, J., Johnson, J., Cassem, N., & Truog, R. (2003). Do-not-resuscitate orders after 25 years. Critical Care Medicine,
Byrne, A., & Eysenck, M. W. (1993). Individual differences in positive and negative interpretive biases. Personality and Individual Differences,
Chen, J., Sosnov, J., Lessard, D., & Goldberg, R. (2008). Impact of do-not-resuscitation orders on quality of care performance measures in patients hospitalized with acute heart failure. American Heart Journal,
Chen, Y. Y., & Youngner, S. J. (2008). “Allow natural death” is not equivalent to “do not resuscitate”: A response. Journal of Medical Ethics,
Chessa, F. (2004). “Allow natural death” not so fast. Hastings Center Report,
Cohen, R. W. (2004a). In response to “Allow natural death” not so fast. Hastings Center Report,
Cohen, R. W. (2004b). A tale of two conversations. Hastings Center Report,
Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Department of Health, 497 U.S. 261 (1990).
Dumot, J. A., Burval, D. J., Sprung, J., Waters, J. H., Mraovic, B., Karafa, N. T., … Bourke, D. L. (2001). Outcome of adult cardiopulmonary resuscitation at a tertiary referral center including results of “limited” resuscitations. Archives of Internal Medicine,
Ells, C. (2010). Levels of intervention: Communicating with more precision about planned use of critical interventions. The American Journal of Bioethics,
Georgia Advance Directives for Healthcare Act 2007 O.C.G.A. § 31-32-1 (2007).
Georgia Living Will Act 1984 O.C.G. A. § 31-32-1 (1984).
Jones, B. L., Parker-Raley, J., Higgerson, R., Christie, L. M., Legget, S., & Greathouse, J. (2008). Finding the right words: Using the terms allow natural death (AND) and do not resuscitate (DNR) in pediatric palliative care. Journal for Healthcare Quality,
Jonsen, A. R., Siegler, M., & Winslade, W. J. (2010). Clinical ethics: A practical approach to ethical decisions in clinical medicine (7th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.
Kamer, R. S., & McClung, J. A. (1995). New York’s no-not-resuscitate law: Burden or benefit? In R. Baker, M. A. Strosberg, & J. Bynum (Eds.), Legislating medical ethics: A study of the New York State do-not-resuscitate law
(pp. 227–234). Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic.CrossRef
Kleinman, A., Eisenberg, L., & Good, B. (2006). Culture, illness, and care: Clinical lessons from anthropologic and cross-cultural research. The Journal of Lifelong Learning in Psychiatry,
Koch, K. A. (2008). Allow natural death: “Do not resuscitate” orders. Northeast Florida Medicine Supplement,
Kranson v. Valley Crest Nursing Home, 755 F.2d 46 (3d. Cir. 1985).
Meisel, A., Snyder, L., Quill, T., & for the American College of Physicians and American Society of Internal Medicine End-of-Life Care Consensus Panel. (2000). Seven legal barriers to end-of-life care: Myths, realities, and grains of truth. Journal of the American Medical Association, 284
(19), 2495–2501. Retrieved from http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?volume=284&issue=19&page=2495
Meisel, A., & Cerminara, K. (2004). The right to die: The law of end of life decision making (3rd ed.). New York: Aspen Publishers.
Meisel, A., & Cerminara, K. (2005 Supp.). The right to die: The law of end of life decision making (3rd ed.). New York: Aspen Publishers.
Meyer, C. (2010). A new designation for allowing natural death (AND). Hospice Patients Alliance
. Retrieved from http://www.hospicepatients.org/and.html
Nursing and Midwifery Council. (2004). The NMC code of professional conduct: Standards for conduct, performance, and ethics. London: Author.
Patient Safety Authority. (2008). Understanding living wills and DNR orders. Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority, 5
(4), 111–117. Retrieved from http://patientsafetyauthority.org/ADVISORIES/AdvisoryLibrary/2008/Dec5(4)/Pages/111.aspx
Payne v. Marion General Hospital, 549 N.E.2d 1043 (1990).
Patient Self-Determination Act of 1990, 42 U.S.C.A. §§ 1395cc, 1396a (1994).
Pike, A. W. (1991). Moral outrage and moral discourse in nurse-physician collaboration. Journal of Professional Nursing,
President’s Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research. (1982). Appendix II: Summaries of the reports.
Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved from http://bioethics.georgetown.edu/pcbe/reports/past_commissions
President’s Council on Bioethics. (2005). Taking care: Ethical caregiving in our aging society. Washington, DC: Author.
Re Quinlan, 70 N.J. 10, 355 A.2d 647 (1976).
Salladay, A. A. (2002). DNR alternative: Making plans to “allow natural death”. Nursing,
Selinger, C. P. (2009). The right to consent: Is it absolute? British Journal of Medical Practitioners,
Seymour, J. E. (2000). Negotiating natural death in intensive care. Social Science and Medicine,
Skol, D. K. (2009). The death of DNR. British Medical Journal, 338
, b1723. Retrieved from http://www.bmj.com/content/338/bmj.b1723.extract
Slomka, J. (1992). The negotiation of death: Clinical decision-making at the end of life. Social Science Medicine,
Stecher, J. (2008). “Allow natural death” vs. “do not resuscitate”: A kinder, gentler approach would benefit everyone. American Journal of Nursing,
Thaler, R. H., & Sunstein, C. R. (2008). Nudge: Improving decisions about health, wealth, and happiness. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Truog, R. D., Waisel, D. B., & Burns, J. P. (1999). DNR in the OR: A goal-directed approach. Journal of the American Society of Anesthesiologists,
Venneman, S. S., Narnor-Harris, P., Perish, M., & Hamilton, M. (2008). “Allow natural death” versus “do not resuscitate”: Three words that can change a life. Journal of Medical Ethics,
Wenger, N. S., Pearson, M. L., Desmond, K. A., Harrison, E. R., Rubenstein, L. V., Rogers, W. H., et al. (1995). Epidemiology of do-not-resuscitate orders: Disparity by age, diagnosis, gender, race, and functional impairment. Archives of Internal Medicine,
Wittmann-Price, R., & Celia, L. M. (2010). Exploring perceptions of “do not resuscitate” and “allowing natural death” among physicians and nurses. Holistic Nursing Practice,
Zoloth, L., & Charon, R. (2002). Like an open book: Reliability, intersubjectivity, and textuality in bioethics. In R. Charon & M. Montello (Eds.), Stories matter: The role of narrative in medical ethics (pp. 21–36). New York, NY: Routledge.