Article

Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 47, Issue 2, pp 141-148

Stimulation of Empress Tree Seed Germination by Liquid Smoke

  • Slađana TodorovićAffiliated withDepartment of Plant Physiology, Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković”
  • , Zlatko GibaAffiliated withInstitute of Botany, Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade
  • , Suzana ŽivkovićAffiliated withDepartment of Plant Physiology, Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković”
  • , Dragoljub GrubišićAffiliated withDepartment of Plant Physiology, Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković”Institute of Botany, Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade
  • , Radomir KonjevićAffiliated withInstitute of Botany, Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade Email author 

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Abstract

The germination of Empress tree (Paulownia tomentosa Steud.) seeds is phytochrome-controlled. Liquid smoke could not induce germination in darkness but red light irradiation of liquid smoke imbibed seeds induced a high percentage of germination. Maximum germination was achieved at liquid smoke concentration of 0.1% (v/v) when present during the imbibition phase or during the phase of phytochrome activity. The light requirement of these seeds could be completely substituted by exogenously applied gibberellins. In the presence of liquid smoke, optimal concentrations of GA3, GA4, and GA9 necessary for inducing germination were several times lower than in the controls, while that of GA7 was equally active when applied at a concentration one order of magnitude lower. The inhibitory effect of the applied growth retardants was strongly reduced and liquid smoke, in the presence of retardants, allowed light-induced germination, if applied simultaneously or after retardants treatment.

Key words

Germination Gibberellins Growth retardants Light Smoke