, Volume 47, Issue 2-3, pp 141-148

Stimulation of Empress Tree Seed Germination by Liquid Smoke

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access


The germination of Empress tree (Paulownia tomentosa Steud.) seeds is phytochrome-controlled. Liquid smoke could not induce germination in darkness but red light irradiation of liquid smoke imbibed seeds induced a high percentage of germination. Maximum germination was achieved at liquid smoke concentration of 0.1% (v/v) when present during the imbibition phase or during the phase of phytochrome activity. The light requirement of these seeds could be completely substituted by exogenously applied gibberellins. In the presence of liquid smoke, optimal concentrations of GA3, GA4, and GA9 necessary for inducing germination were several times lower than in the controls, while that of GA7 was equally active when applied at a concentration one order of magnitude lower. The inhibitory effect of the applied growth retardants was strongly reduced and liquid smoke, in the presence of retardants, allowed light-induced germination, if applied simultaneously or after retardants treatment.