Research Article

Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution

, Volume 57, Issue 5, pp 773-779

First online:

A reliable gender diagnostic PCR assay for jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider)

  • Ayse Gul InceAffiliated withFaculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture, Akdeniz University
  • , Mehmet KaracaAffiliated withFaculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops, Akdeniz University Email author 
  • , A. Naci OnusAffiliated withFaculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture, Akdeniz University

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Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider) is an obligate cross-pollinated shrub native to the Sonora desert. The most valuable product of the jojoba seeds is the liquid wax or jojoba oil which is marketed extensively in the cosmetic industry. Differing from the most of the cultivated crop species, jojoba has slow-growing habit, difficulties in the determination of sex at the early seedling stages, a male-biased ratio and low seed yield. In jojoba, the development of molecular strategies for the identification of sexes at early stages has been a priority in plantations and breeding programs. Two previous studies reported two candidate male-specific jojoba DNA markers. However, present study indicated that these markers were not useful in jojoba sex identification. A reliable gender diagnostic marker for jojoba is, therefore, needed. In the present study a novel jojoba male-specific touch-down polymerase chain reaction based DNA marker (JMS900) was reported using a total of 120 individual jojoba plants bulked into 16 samples. This sex specific DNA marker may have considerable theoretical and practical applications in the establishment of jojoba plantation and breeding studies.


Gender specific DNA marker Sex identification Simmondsia chinensis Touch-down PCR