October 2007, Volume 70, Issue 2-3, pp 91-107,
Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
Date: 19 Apr 2008
Afghanistan’s development and functionality: Renewing a collapsed state
- John Shroder
- … show all 1 hide
Afghanistan has long been backward and underdeveloped where centuries of desertification, deforestation, overgrazing and environmental degradation have combined with successive invasions, violence, and terrorism to reduce the population to abject poverty. In the post 9/11 world, development of Afghanistan is seen as the only hope to revive the failed nation and reduce its threat to the external world. New assessments of natural resources offer many solutions to old problems of development and the potential economic functionality through renewal of the collapsed state. Oil, gas, copper, iron, gemstones, and a number of other resources, combined with a renewed transportation grid, offer a viable solution that is now underway to possibly produce a somewhat more promising future, providing that corruption, renewed violence, and environmental despoliation can be kept to a minimum.
Anonymous (2000). Afghanistan. Retrieved 24 December 2007 from http://rainforests.mongabay.com/deforestation/2000/Afghanistan.htm.
Anonymous (M. Scheuer) (2004). Imperial hubris: Why the west is losing the war on terrorism. Potomac Books.
Anonymous (2005a). Assessing the coal resources of Afghanistan. USGS fact sheet June 2005-3073.
Anonymous (2005b). Assessing the seismic hazards of Afghanistan. USGS fact sheet April 2005-3038.
Anonymous (2006a). Assessment of undiscovered petroleum resources of northern Afghanistan. Retrieved 24 December 2007 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/03/060314231913.htm.
Anonymous (2006b). Copper bottomed? The Economist, 64.
Anonymous (2007). China secures contract for Afghan copper mine. News in Brief, Nature, 450, 599.
Asian Development Bank (2007). Asian development outlook 2007: Afghanistan, Islamic Rep. of. Retrieved 25 December from www.adb.org/Documents/Books/ADO/2007/AFG.asp.
BAAG (British Agencies Afghanistan Group) (2004). BAAG Afghanistan monthly review September 2004. Retrieved 25 December 2007 from www.baag.org.uk/downloads/monthly%20review%2004/52%20-September%202004.pdf.
BAAG (British Agencies Afghanistan Group) (2006). BAAG Afghanistan monthly review September 2006. Retrieved 25 December 2007 from http://reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/EVOD-6UJH7Z?OpenDocument.
Baker, H. D. (1917). The proposed connection of the Russian and Indian railway systems. Geographical Review, 4(2), 92–102.CrossRef
Banks, D. (2002). Guidelines for sustainable use of groundwater in Afghanistan. Norwegian church aid-Afghanistan program (NCAAP), policy document.
Banks, D., & Soldal, O. (2002). Towards a policy for sustainable use of groundwater by non-govermental organizations in Afghanistan. Hydrogeology Journal, 10(3), 377–392.CrossRef
Bearden, M. (2001). Afghanistan, graveyard of empires. Foreign Affairs (November/December), 17–34.
Bergen, P. (2007a). Afghanistan 2007: Problems, opportunities and possible solutions. Testimony February 15, 2007 house committee on foreign affairs, 7 pp. Retrieved 25 December 2007 from http://foreignaffairs.house.gov/110/ber021527.htm. Also published in Afghanistan: mission impossible? ESF working paper no 25 of the European security forum, pp. 22–29.
Bergen, P. (2007b). Losing Afghanistan, one civilian at a time. The Washington Post, November 18, 2007.
Bergen, P. (2007c). The Iraqization of Afghanistan. Mother Jones, July/August 2007. Retrieved 20 December 2007 from www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2007/07/iraqization_of_afghanistan.html.
Blake, P. (2006). Geology might reshape economic landscape: Afghan study boosts resource view. AAPG explorer, July; Retrieved 24 December 2007 from www.aapg.org.explorer/2006/07jul/afghanistan.cfm.
Bradsher, H. S. (1983). Afghanistan and the Soviet Union. Duke University Press.
British Geological Survey (n.d.). Retrieved 20 December 2007 from www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/docs/Copper_A4.pdf.
Broshears, R. E., Akbari, M. A., Chornack, M. P., Mueller, D. K., & Ruddy, B. C. (2005). Inventory of ground-water resources in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan. U.S. Geological Survey science investigations report 2005–5090, USGS Afghanistan project product no. 001, 34 pp.
Chayes, S. (2006). The punishment of virtue: Inside Afghanistan after the Taliban. NY: The Pengiun Press.
Coll, S. (2004). Ghost wars. The Penguin Press.
Crile, G. (2003). Charlie Wilson’s war. NY: Atlantic Monthly Press.
Dachiku, K., & Tahir, A. (2002). Afghanistan: Present state of the transport infrastructure. Infrastructure Development Institute, Japan, 45 pp. Retreived 25 December 2007 from www.idi.or.jp/tech/afghan_transport.pdf.
Dalton, R. (2007). Mine games. Nature, 449, 968–971.CrossRef
Danner, M. (2005). Taking stock of the forever war. The New York Times Magazine, September 11, 44–53, 68–71.
Davis, P. A., & Hare, T. M. (2007). Natural-color image mosaics of Afghanistan: Digital databases and maps. U.S. Geological Survey, data series 245, version 1.0. Retrieved 27 December 2007 from http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/2007/245/.
Deslesgues, L., & Torabi, Y. (2007). Reconstruction national integrity survey: Afghanistan 2007. Tiri, London, UK, 105 pp. Retrieved 18 December 2007 from www.tiri.org/dmdocuments/RNISS%20Afghanistan.pdf.
Doebrich, J. L., & Wahl, R. R. (2006). The geologic and mineral resource map of Afghanistan. Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, 38(7), 166.
Dupree, L. (1973). Afghanistan. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Fallows, J. (2004). Bush’s lost year. The Atlantic, 294(3), 68–84.
Fraser, J. M., Chong, C. N., Sanchez, P. E., Sparks, A., Werner, A., & McCarthy, E. (2003). Securing Afghanistan’s future: Accomplishments and the strategic path forward. Power Sector: Technical Annex, 61 pp. Retrieved 25 December 2007 from www.export.gov/afghanistan/bus_climate/electric.html.
Goodson, L. P. (2001). Afghanistan’s endless war: State failure, regional politics, and the rise of the Taliban. University of Washington Press.
Grantham. A. (2006). Railways in Afghanistan, past and future. Retrieved 21 December 2007 from www.ajg41.clara.co.uk/afghanistan.html.
Heckmiller, I. A. (1961). Stream-gauging problems in Afghanistan. International Association of Scientific Hydrology Bulletin, 6(3), 35–37.
Hussain, F. (2005). Govt considers railway links with central Asia. Retrieved 25 December 2007 from www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=story_8–5-2005_pg5_7.
Ignatieff, M. (2002). How to keep Afghanistan from falling apart. The New York Times Magazine, July 28, Section 6: 26-31, 54–59.
Ispahani, M. Z. (1989). Roads and rivals: The politics of acess in the borderlands of Asia. London, UK: I.B. Tauris.
Jennings, R. S. (2003). The road ahead: Lessons in nation building from Japan, Germany, and Afghanistan for postwar Iraq. United States Institute of Peace, Peaceworks No. 49, Washington, DC, 41 pp. Retrieved from25 December 2007 from www.usip.org/pubs/peaceworks/pwks49.html.
Klett, T. R., Ulmshek, G. F., Wandrey, C. J., Agena, W. F., & U.S. Geological Survey—Afghanistan Ministry of Mines and Industry Joint Oil and Gas Assessment Team (2006). Assessment of undiscovered technically recoverable conventional petroleum resources of northern Afghanistan. U.S. Geological Survey open-file report 2006–1253.
Millen, R. A. (2005), Afghanistan: Reconstituting a collapsed state. Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, Carlisle, PA, 22 pp. Retrieved 19 December 2007 from www.carlisle.army.mil/ssi.
Moreau, R., Yousafzai, S., & Hirsh, M. (2006). Losing Afghanistan: The rise of Jihadistan. Newsweek International Edition, Monday 02 October 2006. Retrieved 25 December 2007 from www.truthout.org/docs_2006/092506R.shtml.
NATO (2007). NATO in Afghanistan: Reconstruction and development. Retrieved 23 December 2007 from www.nato.int/issues/afghanistan/factsheets/reconst_develop.html.
Nelson, S. S. (2007). U.S. teams build infrastructure in Afghanistan. NPR. Retrieved 21 December 2007 from www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=16123139.
Orris, G. J., & Bliss, J. D. (2002). Mines and mineral occurrences of Afghanistan. USGS open-file report 02–110, 95 pp.
Patel, S., & Ross, S. (2007). Breaking point: Measuring progress in Afghanistan. A report of the post-conflict reconstruction project, Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), Codirectors F. Barton, K. van Hippel, The CSIS Press, Washington, DC, 127 pp. Retrieved 25 December 2007 from www.csis.org/breakingpoint.
Peters, S. G., Ludington, S. D., Orris, G. J., Sutphin, D. M., Bliss, J. D., & James J. Rytuba (Eds.), and the U.S. Geological Survey—Afghanistan Ministry of Mines Joint Mineral Resource Assessment Team (2007). Preliminary non-fuel mineral resource assessment of Afghanistan. USGS open-file report 2007–1214, 810 pp. Retrieved 25 December 2007 from http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1214/.
Rasanayagam, A. (2003). Afghanistan: A modern history. London, UK: I.B. Taurus.
Rashid, A. (2001). Taliban: militant Islam, oil and fundamentalism in central Asia. New Haven, CN: Yale University Press.
Rohde, D. & D. E. Sanger (2007) How the ‘good war’ in Afghanistan went bad. The New York Times, August 12, 2007, 1, 12–13.
Rubin, B. R. (1995). The search for peace in Afghanistan: From buffer state to failed state. Yale University Press.
Rubin, B. R. (2007). Saving Afghanistan. Foreign Affairs, 86(1), 57–78.
Ruleman, C. A., Crone, A. J., Machette, M. N., Haller, K. M., & Rukstales, K. S. (2007). Map and database of probable and possible Quaternary faults in Afghanistan: U.S. Geological Survey open-file report 2007–1104, 39 p., 1pl.
Scheuer, M. (2006). Clueless into Kabul. The American Interest., II(1), 111–119.
Shroder, J. F., Jr. (1977). Feasibility study for monitoring desertification in the country of Afghanistan; Special unpublished background paper for Brian Spooner and the Nairobi report on desertification of the United Nations (UNCOD, 1978).
Shroder, J. F., Jr. (1980a). Mineral wealth of Afghanistan. United Press International report (24 January 1980); published widely, including newspapers in New York, Albany, Boston, Baton Rouge and Omaha.
Shroder, J. F., Jr. (1980b). Afghanistan’s minerals. Business Week, 27 October 1980, 8.
Shroder, J. F., Jr. (1980c). Special problems of glacial inventory in Afghanistan. In World Glacier Inventory Proceedings Reideralp Workshop, September 1978 (IAHS-AISH) Publication No. 126, Hydrological Sciences Bulletin (pp. 142–147).
Shroder, J. F. Jr. (1981). Physical resources and the development of Afghanistan. Studies in Comparative International Development, xvi(3–4), 36–53.CrossRef
Shroder, J. F., Jr. (1982). Afghanistan’s unsung riches. The Christian Science Monitor, 74(54).
Shroder, J. F., Jr. (1983). The U.S.S.R. and Afghanistan mineral resources. In A. Agnew (Ed.), International mineral resources a national perspective (p. 115–153). American Association for Advancement of Science.
Shroder, J. F. Jr. (1987). Afghanistan resources and the Soviet Union. Geotimes, 32, 4–5.
Shroder, J. F., Jr. (1989a). Afghanistan resources and Soviet Policy in Central and South Asia. In: M. Hauner & R. Canfield (Eds.), Afghanistan and the Soviet Union: Collision and Transformation (pp. 101–119). Westview Press.
Shroder, J. F., Jr. (1989b). Glacierized areas of Afghanistan. In W. Haeberli, H. Bosch, K. Scherler, G. Ostrem, & C. C. Wallen (Eds.), World glacier inventory, status 1988 (pp. C39-C40 & C346-C353). Teufen, Switzerland: IAHS (ICSI)-UNEP-UNESCO.
Shroder, J. F. Jr. (1989c). Slope failure: extent and economic significance in Afghanistan, Pakistan. In E. E. Brabb, & B. L. Harrod (Eds.), Landslides: extent and economic significance in the world (pp. 325–341). Rotterdam, Netherlands: A.A. Balkema.
Shroder, J. F. Jr. (2002a). Resource assessment for Afghanistan and alleviation of terrorism. EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 83(19), S2–S3, AGU Spring meeting, Washington, DC, 7 May 2002.
Shroder, J. F., Jr. (2002b). Afghanistan press release. American Geophysical Union, AGU spring meeting, Washington, DC, 7 May 2002.
Shroder, J. F., Jr. (2003). Reconstructing Afghanistan: Nation building or nation failure? Geotimes, 5.
Shroder, J. (2004). Afghanistan redux: Better late than never? Geotimes, 34–38.
Shroder, J. F. Jr., & Bishop, M. P. (2004). Glacier change detection in the Hindu Kush of Afghanistan. EOS Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 85(47), F778.
Shroder, J. F., Jr., & Bishop, M. P. (2008), Satellite glacier inventory of Afghanistan. In: R. S. Williams, Jr. & J. G. Ferrigno (Eds.), Satellite image atlas of glaciers. U.S. geological survey professional paper 1386-F.
Shroder, J. F. Jr., & Tawab Assifi, A. (1987). Afghan mineral resources and Soviet exploitation. In R. Klass (Ed.), Afghanistan and the Soviet Union: The great game revisited (pp. 97–134). New York: Freedom House Pub.
Shroder, J. F. Jr., & Watrel, R. H. (1992). Mineral resources in Afghanistan (summary of report for USAID). AACAR Bulletin (Association for the Advancement of Central Asian Research), 5(2), 9.
Shroder, J. F., Jr., M. P. Bishop, Bulley, H. N. N., Haritashya, U. K., & Olsenholler, J. A. (2005), Global land ice monitoring from space (GLIMS) Project Regional Center for Southwest Asia (Afghanistan and Pakistan). In Mountains, Witnesses of global changes: Research in the Himalaya and Karakoram: SHARE-Asia Project. Developments in Earth Surface Processes (187–208). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Synovitz, R. (2007). Afghanistan: China’s winning bid for copper rights includes power plant. Railroad. Radio free Europe/radio liberty. Retrieved 25 December 2007 from www.rferl.org/featuresarticleprint/2007/11/ee7d8224-e2f9–4c79-a7ba-b144a26b190c.html.
Strock, C. (2006). Afghanistan reconstruction. Retrieved 20 December 2007 from www.defenselink.mil/home/dodupdate/For-the-record/documents/20061019.html.
TSIA (Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan) (2004). 14-Province inter-ministerial drought assessment. Ministries of Irrigation, Water Resources and Environment, Rural Rehabilitation & Development, Agriculture & Animal Husbandry, Mines, 6 pp.
UNCOD (1978). United Nations conference on desertification. Round-up plan of action and resolutions. New York: United Nations. Retrieved 25 December 2007 from www.ciesin.columbia.edu/docs/002-478/002-478.html.
UNEP (2003). Afghanistan: Post-conflict environmental assessment. United Nations Environmental Programme, 176 pp.
United Nations, 2006. Afghanistan could return to being a failed state. UN press release, Sunday 26 November 2006. Retrieved 25 December from www.scoop.co.nz/stories/WO0611/S00395.htm.
USAID (2005). Afghanistan reborn: Building Afghan democracy, 26 pp. Retrieved 23 December 2007 from www.usaid.gov/locations/asia_near_east/countries/afghansiatn/prt.html.
USAID (2007). Afghanistan road update. February, Issue 65. Retrived 21 December 2007 from www.usaid.gov/locations/asia_near_east/documents/ countries/afghanistan/roadupdate_2007.pdf .
USGS (2006). Water resources assessment, monitoring and capacity building: Ensuring safe, adequate and sustainable water resources in afghanistan. US Department of the Interior, US Geological Survey information sheet August 2006, 2 pp.
Walsh, D. (2006 a). As Taliban insurgency gains strength and sophistication, suspicion falls on Pakistan. The Guardian, Monday, 13 November.
Wandry, C. J., Ulmishek, G., Agena, W., Klett, T. R., & Afghanistan Oil & Gas Research Assessment Team (2006). U.S. geological survey and Afghanistan Ministry of mines and industry cooperative assessment of Afghanistan’s undiscovered oil and gas. USGS open-file report 2006–1095. Retrieved 24 December 2007 from http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1095/.
Weier, J. (2002). From wetland to wasteland, 7 pp. Retreived 20 December 2007 from NASA http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Study/hamoun/.
Westfall, A. O. (1969). Surface Water Investigations in Afghanistan: A summary of activities from 1952 to 1969. Administrative report, U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Water and Soil Survey Department, Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, Royal Government of Afghanistan, under the auspices of the US Agency for International Development, 50 pp.
Wheeler, R. L., Bufe, C. G., Johnson, M. L., Dart, R. L. (2005). Seismotectonic map of Afghanistan with annotated bibliography. USGS Afghanistan project product no. 011, open-file report 2005–1264, 31 pp.
Whitney, J. W. (2006). Geology, water, and wind in the lower Helmand Basin, southwestern Afghanistan. U.S. Geological Survey scientific investigations report 2006–5182, 40 pp.
World Bank (2005). The investment climate in Afghanistan: Exploiting opportunities in an uncertain environment. Finance and private sector development unit, south Asian region. The World Bank: 67 pp.
World Bank (2007). Afghanistan: Data & statistics. Retrieved 25 December 2007 from www.worldbank.org.af/.
- Afghanistan’s development and functionality: Renewing a collapsed state
- Open Access
- Available under Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
Volume 70, Issue 2-3 , pp 91-107
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer Netherlands
- Additional Links
- Environmental degradation
- Infrastructure Natural resources
- John Shroder (1)
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Geography & Geology, University of Nebraska at Omaha, 60th & Dodge, Omaha, NE, 68182, USA