Foundations of Physics

, Volume 44, Issue 10, pp 1085–1095

Parity Proofs of the Kochen–Specker Theorem Based on the 120-Cell


DOI: 10.1007/s10701-014-9830-0

Cite this article as:
Waegell, M. & Aravind, P.K. Found Phys (2014) 44: 1085. doi:10.1007/s10701-014-9830-0


It is shown how the 300 rays associated with the antipodal pairs of vertices of a 120-cell (a four-dimensional regular polytope) can be used to give numerous “parity proofs” of the Kochen–Specker theorem ruling out the existence of noncontextual hidden variables theories. The symmetries of the 120-cell are exploited to give a simple construction of its Kochen–Specker diagram, which is exhibited in the form of a “basis table” showing all the orthogonalities between its rays. The basis table consists of 675 bases (a basis being a set of four mutually orthogonal rays), but all the bases can be written down from the few listed in this paper using some simple rules. The basis table is shown to contain a wide variety of parity proofs, ranging from 19 bases (or contexts) at the low end to 41 bases at the high end. Some explicit examples of these proofs are given, and their implications are discussed.


Kochen–Specker theorem Quantum contextuality parity proofs 120-Cell 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Physics DepartmentWorcester Polytechnic InstituteWorcesterUSA